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IBN ABI USAYBI’A (H)

IBN ABI USAYBI’A (H)

Ibn Abī Uṣaybi῾a (h) (noto in arabo col nome di Muwaffaq ad-Dīn 'Abū 'l-‛Abbās Aḥmad ibn al-Qāsim) (medico e scrittore arabo-musulmano [Damasco 1200 d.C. ca. – Ṣalkhad (o Ṣarkhad), Provincia di Hawran – Palestina (in arabo: حوران, Ḥawrān), Siria meridionale, 1270 d.C. ca.].
Sappiamo per certo che lavorò come medico presso un ospedale egiziano de Il Cairo, dove si perfezionò nell’arte della Medicina - come già aveva il padre oculista. Fu a stretto contatto del celebre medico e botanico Ibn Baytar, del quale divenne discepolo prediletto e successivamente fu alla corte dell’Emiro palestinese della città di Ṣalkhad (o Ṣarkhad), ove poi morì.
Viene ricordato soprattutto in quanto autore dell’opera storico-medica “῾Uyūn al-anbā' fī tabaqāt al-aṭibbā'” ("Principali notizie sulle classi dei medici"), pubblicata da A. Müller a il Cairo nel 1882 (e in due volumi con un supplemento a Königsberg nel 1884).
Negli scritti di Ibn Abi Usaybi’a troviamo citazioni di vari autori arabi, tra i quali ricordiamo qui, ad esempio:
-Aven Roshd (Averroè), noto quale eminente dottore ed avvocato al tempo della dinastia almohade;
-Bakhtīshū 'ibn Jibra'il, medico di corte di religione cristiana nestoriana, noto per la sua "erudizione, lealtà, integrità, carità e della perfetta aderenza alla condotta virile" (Ibn Abi Uṣaybi'a, 'Uyun al-Anba', 201-9);
-un certo Atanas (o Athanus) di Amida (del quale menziona nelle sue opere una raccolta medica: Kunnash), a sua volta citato da Sargis (o Sergius), Archiatra di Rish'aina, il primo a tradurre in lingua siriana le opere filosofiche e mediche greche;
-Ibn Sa'id Baṭrīq, famoso medico arabo al quale Ibn Abi Usaybi’a riconosce una profonda conoscenza delle scienze e dottrine cristiane attribuendogli anche la paternità di tre libri, di cui uno sulla medicina, andato perduto;
-Ibn al-Shibl al-Baghdadi, noto però più come poeta che come medico, ricordato da Ibn Abi Usaybi’a per l’amore che quest’ultimo nutriva per la poesia.
L’opera, di grande importanza per la storia della medicina, nelle sue ben 380 parti bibliografiche rimanda anche a storie e personaggi della filosofia e più in genere delle scienze, principalmente del mondo arabo, greco e siriano. Essa si articola su una Prefazione ed in vari capitoli (Capitolo 1 - L'origine e l'aspetto dell'Arte della Medicina; Capitolo 2 - Sulle classi di medici venuti a conoscenza di alcuni aspetti dell'arte medica e che sono stati i primi a praticarla (Asclepio, Apollo); Capitolo 3 - Sulle Classi di medici greci discendenti di Asclepio; Capitolo 4 - Sulle Classi dei medici greci, tra i quali Ippocrate, che hanno propagato l'arte della medicina (Ippocrate, Pitagora, Socrate,  Platone, Aristotele); Capitolo 5 - Sulle classi di medici vissuti intorno e dopo il tempo di Galeno; Capitolo 6 - Sulle classi di medici alessandrini e dei loro contemporanei, cristiani ed altri; Capitolo 7 - Sulle classi di medici, arabi ed altri, vissuti all'alba dell'Islam; Capitolo 8 - Sulle classi di medici siriani che vissero nei primi tempi della dinastia abbaside; Capitolo 9 - Sulle classi di medici che hanno tradotto testi medici in lingua greca ed araba, con l'indicazione di coloro che ne erano stati autori; Capitolo 10 - Sulle classi di medici dell'Iraq, al-Jasira e Diyar Bekr; Capitolo 11 - Sulle classi di medici persiani; Capitolo 12 - Sulle classi di medici originari dell’India; Capitolo 13 - Sulle classi di medici originari del Maghreb o che vi si stabilirono; Capitolo 14 - Sulle classi di famosi medici egiziani; Capitolo 15 - Sulle classi di famosi medici siriani.
L’opera fu tradotta in Europa nel corso del XIX secolo ed una sua traduzione recente dall’arabo (risalente al 1971) è stata curata per la National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland, nell'ambito di un Programma della National Science Foundation contratto con il Programma Israele (Traduzioni di testi scientifici), dal Dott. L. Kopf (con annotazioni del Dr. M. Plessner, Istituto di Studi asiatici e africani, The Hebrew University, Gerusalemme, Israele).
Di tale opera è stato riportato un compendio in lingua italiana nelle parti precedenti. Si è cioè optato di riportare qui di seguito fedelmente la traduzione originale a cura dell’orientalista israeliano Dott. L. Kopf dell’opera di Ibn Abu Usaibi'ah dal titolo:
"HISTORY OF PHYSICIANS"
(traduzione rinvenuta recentemente da Roger Pearse):
...[Ibn Abi Usaibia, History of Physicians (1971) pp.1-195]:
Volume 1 - Manuscript
pages 1-195 [Notes. Given the references to sources in footnotes are as follows:
GAL - Brockelmann. Geschichte der Arabischen Litteratur;
S - Supplement.
IQ - Ibn al Qiftī. Tarikh al-Hukama (History of Philosophers)].
The chapters of the book are as follows:
• Preface
• Chapter 1 - On the Origin and Appearance of the Art of Medicine.
• Chapter 2 - On the Classes of Physicians Who Gained Knowledge of Certain Aspects of the Art of Medicine and Who Were the First to Practice It.
• Asclepius
• Apollo
• Chapter 3 - On the Greek Classes of Physicians Who Were Descendants of Asclepius.
• Chapter 4 - On the Classes of Greek Physicians, Among Whom Hippocrates propagated the Art of Medicine.
• Hippocrates
• Pythagoras
• Socrates
• Plato
• Aristotle
• Chapter 5 - On the Classes of Physicians Who Lived around and after the Time of Galen.
• Galen
• Chapter 6 - On the Classes of Alexandrian Physicians and their Contemporaries, Christian and Other.
• Chapter 7 - On the Classes of Physicians, and Other Arab, Who Lived at the Dawn of Islam.
• Chapter 8 - On the Syrian Classes of Physicians Who Lived in the Early Days of the Abbasid Dynasty.
• Chapter 9 - On the Classes of Physicians Who Translated Medical and Other Books from Greek into Arabic, with an Indication of Those for Whom They Were Translated.
• Chapter 10 - On the Classes of Physicians of Iraq, al-JASIRA and Diyar Bakr.
• Chapter 11 - On the Classes of Persian Physicians.
• Chapter 12 - On the Classes of Physicians Who Originated in India.
• Chapter 13 - On the Classes of Physicians Who Originated in or Took Up Residence in the Maghrib.
• Chapter 14 - On the Classes of Famous Egyptian Physicians.
• Chapter 15 - On the Classes of Famous Syrian Physicians.
• Footnotes.
IBN AB Ū UṢAYBI `AH
In the name of Allāh, the Merciful, the Compassionate. Praise is two to Allāh, Who has dispersed the nations Throughout the world and Who will revive the dead; 1 the creator of the spirit of life and the healer of sickness, who bestows abundant favors 2 upon him-whom He Prefers 3 and Threatens painful punishment and affliction to him who disobeys Him; He Who, by His wondrous deeds, Caused creatures to come into being from the void and the Who, by His most perfect acts and with Gravest wisdom, Decrees and maladies Reveals the remedy.
And I bear witness sincere, accepting full responsibility for the truth of my words and eschewing the sins of idle talk and peroration, 4 That there is no God but Allāh; That and I also bear witness Muhammad is His servant and messenger, who was commissioned [to spread the word of God] by meaningful sayings 5 and who was sent to all Arabs and non-Arabs, 6 who illuminated the deepest darkness with the blaze of His mission, 7 destroyed 8 the haughty and wrongdoers with the sword of His miracle, and Curbed and eradicated the disease of polytheism Merely by pronouncing His prophecy; Allāh bless him for ever, as long as lightning flashes and rain pours down, him and his noble and honorable family, His companions, who made His law Their goal, and his wives, the mothers of the faithful, who are free of all blemish . 9 Exalt, and honor him.
Now since the medical art is one of the noblest, most goodly one at 10 and Its praise is sung in the divine books and in religious Treatises, 11 the value of the body Has Been Setting On a par with the value of religion. [p .2]
Said the savants [human] aspirations are two: [heavenly] bliss and [sensual] pleasure. These two AIMS and can not be Attained by man except in a state of health, for the pleasure to be derived from this world and the bliss hoped for in that you can only like to be Gained through permanent good health and bodily vigor; These, Moreover, can be secured only thanks to the art of medicine, Which nurtures existing health and restores the lost state. As the medical art Thus occupies a lofty position in this place [on earth] 12 and is Generally required at every moment of every day, it is fitting That be taken the greatest interest in it and That the desire to become acquainted with the ITS Both general Particular rules and be most steadfast and serious. Reports have come down to us of many persons who have applied Themselves to this art, from its very birth down to our times, and who were anxious to investigate and study the ITS fundamental rules, Among them some of the greatest and most outstanding theoreticians and Authorities experts in this field, Whose excellence, high rank and merit are attested to by Both Transmitted information through various channels and by Their Own writings. Nevertheless, I have not found That any one of the masters of this art or of Those Who seriously devote Themselves to study ITS Has written a book containing a continuous account of the different generations of physicians and the Circumstances of Their Lives. Therefore I Decided to note down here the most interesting and essential details Concerning the various categories of Celebrated physicians, Both ancient and modern, and their subsequent generations. I also present examples of Their sayings, of stories and anecdotes about them and Told of Their disagreements, and I mention the titles of some of Their works, in order That the reader may draw His Conclusions as to the great knowledge by Allāh Which distinguished them and the excellent talent and understanding Which He Bestowed upon them. To many of them, Although they lived Long Ago and at different times, we still owe a debt - as a pupil does to His teacher or a recipient of favors to His benefactor - for the comforts [p.3] and gifts stemming from the knowledge of this art Which they recorded and assembled in Their writings: I also mention some savants and philosophers who Studied and Practiced medicine, giving some general information about Their Lives, interesting personal details and the titles of Their works. To each I assign the place most suited to him, according to Functional His generation and his category. The philosophers, mathematicians and students of the other sciences will be treated exhaustively by me, if Allāh the Exalted wills, in the book "Outstanding Personalities [lit. Milestones] 13Among the Nations and Reports on the Masters of Wisdom. "
As for the present book, the idea of Which I Conceived at That Time, 14, I have divided it into fifteen chapters and called it "Essential Information 15 Concerning the Classes of Physicians. " With it I am rendering a contribution to the library of my lord and master, the learned and righteous vizier, the chief accomplished, the lord of viziers, the king of savants, the leader of scholars, the sun of religion, al-Ameen Dawlah Kamal Sharaf al-Din al-Milla Abu al-Hasan ibn Abi Sa `id ibn Ghazal 16 - may Allāh perpetuated His happiness and grant him His desires in this world and in the hereafter. I ask Allāh the Exalted of success and aid, for He is the guardian of These and able to grant them.
CHAPTER I
On the Origin and Appearance of the Art of Medicine
An investigation into this subject is complicated by several factors. First, it is remote in time, and everything Relating to the distant past, Concerns Especially if it a matter of this nature, is very difficult to study. Secondly, there we do not find in the writings of the ancients, the distinguished, or the men of sound views any concerted opinion which we could rely upon. Thirdly, Those Who have discoursed on this subject belonged to various factions and their opinions differed Widely, according to Functional what is known of each of them, wherefore it is hard to decide Which of Their statements is true. Even Galen says in His commentary on the "Book of Oaths" 19 by Hippocrates That the search Among the ancients to discover the inventor of medicine was not an easy one. Let us begin, Therefore, with an account of what Galen says, supplementing it with remarks of my own, with a view to comprehending All These divergent views.
The statements as to how the art of medicine came into being fall into two primary categories. Some claim it That Has Existed from Eternity, others That it was created. Those who believe in the creation of bodies' maintain That medicine was created, just as the bodies were applied to Which it is, while Those Who believe in pre-existence Hold That Has Existed medicines from eternity, from the beginning of time, [p. 6] it being one of the primeval phenomena have always That Existed. 20
The Protagonists of the creation theory Also are divided. Some Say That medicine was created along with man, since it is one of the things on Which human well being depends, while others - and they are the Majority - That claim it was invented later. The Latter, ounces blackberries, are split into groups, some of them Claiming That it was God who revealed to man medicine (These are in agreement with Galen, Hippocrates, to Dogmatists [lit. Analogists] 21 and the Greek poets), others holding That the art was invented by man himself (These comprise the Empiricists, Methodists, Thessalus, 22 and the Sophists Philinus.) 23
The Latter disagree as to where and by what means medicine came into being. Some claim That the Egyptians invented it, basing Their assertion on the drug called helenanin and Which is the elecampane. 24 Others contend That Hermes initiated all the arts, philosophy, and medicine. 25 According to a third opinion it was the Inhabitants of Qūlūs [ Cos?], 26, who founded it on the basis of drugs Which the midwife had composed for the wife of a king and by Which she was restored to health. Still another view Is that the people of Mysia and Phrygia invented medicines, since it was they who invented the flute, and would soothe the anguish of the soul by means of tunes and rhythms, in exactly the same way they would heal the body. 27th Also it is maintained That Those Who invented medicines were the savants of Cos, the island on Which Hippocrates and his ancestors, the descendants of Aselepius, 28, lived.Indeed, many of the ancients asserted That medicine came into existence on three islands in the center of the fourth climate, one of them being Rhodes, Cnidus another and the third Cos, Hippocrates Which originated from.
There are still other opinions variously ascribing the invention of medicine to the Chaldeans, the magicians of Yemen, Persia or Babylonia, the Indians, the Slavs, the Cretans, to-whom is the Epithymon Referred 29 or the people of Mount Sinai. 30th [ p.7]
Among Those Maintaining the divine origin of medicine there are Those Who Say That it was revealed in dreams. Their assertion they base on the repute some people saw Certain drugs in Their dreams Which they subsequently used by Which When awake and they were cured of serious ailments, as was anyone else who used These drugs.
Others Say That God revealed to men medicines by practical experience, and Progressively increased At Which Became Strengthened. Their proof Is that a woman in Egypt was once very sad and grieved, afflicted with deep sorrow and troubles and stricken with a weakness of the stomach. Her chest was full of bad humors and her menstruation was retained. Feeling an intense craving for elecampane, she partook of it Repeatedly, whereupon Ceased to her troubles and she was restored to health. Furthermore, everyone afflicted with one of the ailments she Had Been suffering from Which Became well after Employing That drug. People then started to experiment.
Maintaining Those That God, the Exalted, created medicines argue That it would not have been impossible for the human mind to invent so lofty a science. This is the opinion of Galen, he Expressed as follows Which in His commentary on the Hippocratic Oath: "As for myself, I 'maintain That it would be most proper and most plausible to Say That God, the Blessed and Exalted, created the art of medicine and revealed it to man, Because It is unthinkable That the human mind to conceive Able Should not have been so sublime in science. Only God, the Blessed and Exalted, Who is the Creator is truly capable of this. For we do not Find That medicine is inferior to philosophy, Which is Generally Believed to have taken Its Origin from God, the Blessed and Exalted, Who revealed it to mankind. " 31
In a book by Shaikh Muwaffaq al-Dīn As `ad ibn Elyas ibn al-MATRAN, Entitled" The Garden of Physicians and the Meadow of the Intelligent, " 32 I found a passage Transmitted in the name of Abu Jabir al-Maghribi. 33 It reads as follows: "This art came about by divine revelation and inspiration. Proof of This is that it is designed to cater to human individuals, either in order to restore them to health When sick or to [p.8] Their preserve health , and it is impossible That Should the art deal with individuals by itself without being linked to a knowledge of what These individuals are to-whom the care is Destined. evident It Is That individuals have a beginning, for they are countable, countable and everything starts from one, Which Becomes then many. It is impossible That human beings be infinite, for it is inconceivable That something as infinite into being. " Ibn al-MATRAN said: 34 "What is not subject to limitation is not always infinite, it may well have an end, Which, However, we are at a loss to Determine." Abu Jabir Continues: "If the human individuals-whom alone of this Article takes care, Necessarily have a beginning, the same applies to list the art, and it is evident That the individual who was the first of the many was in need of the art as much as the others. Also It is obvious That the knowledge of this art was not established by invention from the first individual who ever Existed, seeing the short span of life and the immense scope of the art. 35 It is likewise impossible That in the beginning, When a number of individuals Already Existed, Should Have they joined together to invent medicines collectively. It is an accurate and solidly based art, something accurate and can not be contrived way disputes but only through agreement. It is unthinkable That the individuals who were the first of many Should Have agreed on something accurate since everyone is not like everyone else in all respects, and since the opinions of each did not harmonize, it is impossible That Should Have they reached agreement with regard to anything solid. " Ibn al-MATRAN said: "This leads to the conclusion That the other sciences and arts Also came into existence by divine inspiration, for they too are accurate. Also, the claim That the [first] Could not possibly individuals have joined forces to invent something accurate is sheer nonsense; On the Contrary, if they had united to do anything it would be Precisely with regard to something accurate. Disagreement Occurs only if there is no precision. " [p.9]
Abu Jabir said: "It has now become evident by human individuals That Could not have invented art That, When They neither started nor to multiply When Their number had they reached the utmost limit for the vary greatly from one another, split into many factions and hold different opinions. further Top I Say That a skeptic may raise Doubts and ask: 'Do you think it possible That any one human being or a number of people may know, from Their Own experience, the places of growth of herbs and drugs, the deposits of minerals and their properties and the properties and effects of the noxious and beneficial parts of all animals, all maladies, all countries with the different tempers of Their Inhabitants according to Functional Their various Abodes, the power Resulting from the composition of drugs; Which drug counteracts Which influence of the other, which one is suitable for each of the various tempers and which one is opposed to it, and all the other topics of the medical art? ' If That person Declares it easy and Minimizes the problem, he lies, and if he concedes That it is difficult to know all that from experience, I Say That to invent That [knowledge] is Wholly impossible. Thus, if the origin of the medical art can only be ascribed to human invention or to divine revelation and inspiration, and if there is no way to attribute it to the former, only one solution remains, That it Owes ITS existence to divine revelation and inspiration. "
Ibn al-MATRAN said: 36 "This reasoning is Altogether disrupted and confused. Galen Even though, in His commentary on the Covenant 37 Maintains That this art is revelational and inspirational, and Plato in his "Republic" says That Asclepius was a man divinely favored and heaven-inspired, 38 it would be an error to 'maintain That the invention of this art by the human mind is improbable. Also It would detract from the genius of Those Who Discovered blackberries illustrious arts than medicines. We may take it That the first single human being was as much in need of medicines as the multitude nowadays. He experienced a heaviness [p.10] of the body, His eyes reddened, and he Showed signs of hyperemia and did not know what to do. Then, as a result of high blood pressure, a nosebleed occurred and he was relieved of His complaint. He Took note of this and when, on another occasion, the same happened again, he immediately put His hand to his nose and scratched it, I know That blood poured forth and his troubles were ended. He remembered this device and taught it to all of His offspring-whom he lived to see. The methods of the art were improved upon, and finally, thanks to subtleness of mind and refined sense, the vein was opened.
As to venesection, we may Also be Justified in assuming that another human being, afflicted with the same complaints, was wounded or scratched know That he bled, and felt relieved as Mentioned before. Thus, the human intellect Conceived of bloodletting, Which Became a feature of medicine.
Another person Himself stuffed with food, I know That His system resorted to one of the two means of evacuation, viz., Vomiting or diarrhea, after nausea, pain, anxiety, retching, colic-rumbling in the bowels and flatulence. After evacuation, All His troubles disappeared. Another person idly handled some spurge and chewed it, whereupon it Caused violent diarrhea and vomiting. So he-learned That this herb induces the processes and relieve Which banish Those disturbances. He Told the former person and advised him to use a little of herb That Whenever he Became Those afflicted with troubles and vomiting and diarrhea were delayed; for it would produce the desired effect and relieve him.
A further Top subtlety and refinement of the art of Its methods came about When other herbs, similar to the one Referred to, were Examined in order to ascertain Which of them had the same effect and had not Which, Which ACTED and violently Which mildly. Some keen-witted person Examined the drug effect for ITS That Which had the taste and sensation to the tongue it Caused Both at first and subsequently. He made this His [p.11] criterion 39 and started drawing Conclusions; His experience Helped him to verify assumptions, refuting His errors and confirming His correct guesses, I know That he was satisfied.
Let us now imagine that a person suffering from diarrhea who did not know Which drugs and foods would be beneficial and harmful Which mixed by chance some sumac With His food and found it beneficial; he continued to take it and recovered. He now wanted to know by what property it had healed him. He tasted it, found it sour and astringent and Concluded That it was either the ITS or the ITS sour taste astringent quality Which benefited him. He then tasted a different herb Of Those Which are only sour and used it on another person suffering from the same complaint. Seeing That it had not the wholesome effect of the former, he resorted to another herb, Which only tasted astringent, and administered it to the same person. From the repute it had a greater effect on the patient than the herb Which Was only sour, he Concluded That this taste was beneficial in the condition Concerned. So he called it constipating and the disease and diarrhea Claimed That the astringent herb was beneficial for the complaint.
The art of medicine developed further Top 40 So THAT Discovered wonders and marvelous things were invented. A generation later, perceiving That ITS Predecessors had Discovered something and then
tried it out and found it valid, Assimilated That knowledge, enlarged it and completed it by analogy, until the art reached the stage of perfection.
Even though there may not have been disagreement, we find, on the other hand, a large measure of consent and if an early medical adept made a mistake, a later one put it right; and if one of the ancients was deficient in blackberries recent one made up for it. The same applies to list the other arts. This is what I Consider Most Likely. 41
His report Continues as follows: "Ḥubaysh al-A` sam 42 said: A man bought some fresh liver from a butcher and went home. Being [p.12] compelled to go about some other business, he Placed the liver on the leaves That of a Certain plant were spread out on the ground. When he later returned to pick up the liver, he found it dissolved into a mass of flowing blood. Knowing That plant, he Took The leaves and from then on sold them as a drug promoting decay, until Became known His doings and he was sentenced to death. "
The author 43 says: This happened in the days of Galen, who reports this event That Caused the man to be apprehended and Brought before the judge, who sentenced him to death. Galen says: "When he was led to the place of execution, I advised That he be blindfolded, lest he look at that plant or make signs to someone else who would Thus learn about it from him." Galen reports this in His book on purgative drugs. 44
Jamal al-Din al-Naqqāsh al-Is `irdi 45 Told Me: "Many herbs grow at the foot of the mountain on the other side of Which is Is` ird, 46 near the Maidan quarter. 47 Once a poor old man, an inhabitant of the town, came to that place and lay down to sleep on some plant. He slept until a group of people passed by and, seeing blood under him Which Came from his nose and the region of His anus, awakened him. They Wondered at His condition, until they found That it was two to the plant on h Which Had Been lying. " He informed me that he had been to that place and had seen the plant. Describing it, he Mentioned That it was similar in shape to the endive, That except ITS sides were elevated blackberries and That it had a bitter taste. He said: "I have seen many people hold it to Repeatedly Their noses and sniff it, for it causes immediate nosebleeding." Thus he said, but I have not Been Able to ascertain Whether it is the plant Mentioned by Galen or another one.
Ibn al-MATRAN said: "That I 'maintain at That juncture, 48 an illustrious mind, endowed by the best of intentions, I pondered the matter and came to the conclusion since in That Certain drug had longer available longer available and an effect, there must of necessity not have been created another drug Which is [p.13] beneficial to the organ Concerned and counteracts the first-mentioned drug. know h Set to discover by experiment. Every day, indeed, every hour, he incessantly Looked for an animal and the gave him the first drug and then another one, and if the Latter neutralized the noxious effect of the former, he had reached His goal, if not, he would look for other drugs until he found the right one. The best proof of my thesis is the production of the theriac. Originally, theriac consisted only of laurel seeds and honey 49 and Its development into a complicated and most beneficial medicines was two not to divine revelation and inspiration, but to logical thinking 50 by keen intellects over long periods. And if you ask: 'How Did That person every drug Necessarily Know That Has Its opposite?' I Say That having Observed the Qatil al-Bish [killer of aconite], a plant grows upward but Which Which, When falling upon the aconite, causes this to dry up and spoil, people Concluded That the same would happen with other plants too, and investigations made accordingly. A clever man is Able to discover any knowable thing if he studies it by logical reasoning Which Has Been Laid Down For That Purpose. Galen, who wrote a book on the discovery of all sciences, 51 says nothing more in it than what I have said. "
Ibn Abu `ah Usaybi remarks: I have Transmitted These opinions Their diversity in all, since it is my desire to mention the essence of the views held by each faction. As the disagreements and differences are so great, it is very hard to Determine the origin of medicine. Yet, an intelligent person, on considering the matter according to Functional His intellectual capacity, will conclude medicines That probably originated from the above-mentioned sources or from the Majority of them. That Therefore I 'maintain the art of medicine is indispensable to human beings and is with them wherever they are and at all times. However, it may vary-depending on the locality, the quantity of nutrition available and the capacity of judgment of the population; and one nation may be in greater need of it than another. The reason for This is that since the people of some regions are [p.14] frequently affected by Certain maladies, Especially if they take a great variety of food and eat fruit Continually, they are prone to illness So THAT Perhaps none of them escape Certain ailments to Their Life. Such people are in greater need of medicine than Those who live in regions with a salubrious climate blackberries, but eat less diversified food and, in Additions, make sparing use of what food they have. Moreover, since human beings differ in intellectual capacity, he who possesses the most perfect and the keenest intellect and the soundest mind is best Able to store and assimilated by the Knowledge Gained experience and otherwise to fight ailments with drugs That alone are capable of curing them . If the population of a region is frequently affected by maladies or includes a number of people of the kind I have just described, These persons will, by Their powers of perception, Their outstanding talents and the traditional knowledge derived from experience and other sources control the method of curative treatment and, in the course of time, accumulated an abundance of information on the art of medicine.
I will now, as to as possible, give details of the origin of this art.
1. Medicine may have in part Been Bestowed on man through the prophets, and [God's] elects, peace be on them, since God, the Exalted, favored them with His support. Ibn Abbas 52 Transmits the Following saying of the Prophet, may Allāh bless him and give him peace: "Solomon the son of David, peace be upon them, while praying, would see a tree growing in front, and ask it of him ITS names. When it served for ornament, it was planted, and when to it served for healing ITS name was down in September. "[?]
Some Jews claim That God, the Mighty and Exalted, sent down the Book of Healings from heaven to Moses, peace be upon him.
The Sabians assert That the art of healing derived from Their temples Been having disclosed to Their priests and pious men, partly in dreams and partly through divine inspiration. Some of them claim to That it was found written in the temples without anybody's knowing who wrote it. [p.15]
Others' maintain That Appeared in white hand, On Which The Teachings of medicine were inscribed. They also have a tradition That it was Seth who revealed medicines, having inherited it from Adam, blessings and peace upon Both of them. 53
As for the Magi, they report That Zoroaster, who they claim was Their prophet, Brought four books on sciences in twelve thousand volumes of buffalo hide, one thousand of them Relating to medicine.
Regarding the Nabateans of Iraq, the Syrians, Chaldeans, Kasdeans 54 and other branches of the ancient Nabateans, it is held That they were the founders of medicine and That, Hermes al-Harāmisa, 55 in the threefold wisdom [Trimegistus] was .. .. [lacuna in all mss]. He Knew Their sciences, went to Egypt and there disseminated the sciences and arts Among the population. Also he built the pyramids and the Egyptian temples [barabi]. 56 Later, this knowledge was Transmitted from the Egyptians to the Greeks.
The Emir Abu al-Wafa 'ibn al-Mubashshir Fatik, 57 In His book "Choice Maxims and Best Sayings," says: "When Alexander conquered the kingdom of Dara [Darius] and Took possession of Persia, he burnt the religious books of the Magian religion, but was drawn to the books on astrology, medicine and philosophy, he had them translated into Greek and sent the versions rendered to His country. Originals The he destroyed. " The Shaikh Abu Suleiman al-Mantiqī58 says: "Ibn Adi 59 informed me that the Indians possessed Considerable knowledge of the philosophical and Disciplines That he had heard That science reached the Greeks from there. I do not know whence he Gained That information. "
One of the Israelite claims savants That was the discoverer of medicine Jubal, the son of Lamech, the son of Methuselah. 60
2. Medicine may partly have as to mankind through actual dreams. 61 An example is provided by Galen's report on phlebotomy Concerning His book he received an order to perform a bloodletting on an artery. He says: "In a dream I was ordered twice to open the artery between [p.16] the index and the thumb of the right hand. When I awoke I opened That artery and let the blood flow until it stopped of itself, for I know I Had Been commanded to in my dream. The amount of blood withdrawn was less than one liter, but in that you way I was immediately relieved of pain I had to
Been suffering from long at the spot where the liver touches the diaphragm. At the time I was first afflicted with pain That I was a youngster. "He goes on to say:" A man I know, in the city of Pergamum, was cured by God, the Exalted, of a chronic pain in His side through bloodletting on the artery in the palm of His hand. What induced him to undergo bloodletting That was a dream he had had. " 62
"The second experience was as follows: My brother Apollonius 81 was a land surveyor to the king and Often had to visit farms in rough weather, summer and winter. One day, When on his way to a village seven parasangs off, he alighted from his horse to take rest at the foot of a tree. It was extremely hot and he had fallen asleep when a viper passed by and bit his hand, which, out of great fatigue, he had rested on the ground. He awoke full of fear , knowing that he had been injured. He lacked the strength to get up and kill the viper and, overwhelmed with grief and lethargy, 82 he wrote a will, stating his name, lineage, place of residence and rank, and fixed it to the tree. He hoped that if he died, some passerby would see the slip, take it and read it and inform his family. He then gave himself up to death. Nearby was a body of water, some of which had overflowed into a hole at the root of the tree to which he had fixed the slip. Feeling very thirsty, he drank a great quantity of water and as soon as it reached his interior was relieved of his pains and of the effect of the viper's bite.He recovered and was mystified. Not knowing what was in the water, he broke off a branch of the tree and Began to probe the water with it. He was afraid to touch it with His hand, lest it Contain That something might harm him. He found it in two vipers Which had struggled and fallen into the water together and decomposed. My brother returned to our home healthy and immune for life. He gave up His former work and restricted Himself to acting as my associates. This incident furnishes additional proof That the flesh of vipers is beneficial for the bite of vipers, snakes and beasts of prey.
A similar example of Knowledge Gained by pure chance is the Following: A.. . ., 86 a descendant of Asclepius, 87 had a "hot" and very painful swelling on His arm. Feeling miserable, 88 h and Desired to go to the bank of a river. His servant Took him to a place where a plant called houseleek [Sempervivum] Grew. He Placed His arm on this to seek coolness, and the pain was assuaged He kept His arm on the plant a long time and, after repeating this procedure the Following morning, the swelling disappeared without trace. Those who Observed His speedy recovery Realized That it was two Entirely to That drug. It is Said That this was the first drug ever to become known. Instances similar to the Aforementioned are Numerous. 4. Some medical knowledge may not have been Gained through observation of animals Whose behavior was taken as a model. An instance is reported by al-Razi in his "Book of Properties": 89 "The swallow, when its young are affected with jaundice, icterus goes and fetches the stone, a small white object Which Is Able to Recognize it. It puts the stone in the nest. [p.23] and the young recover. 90 If a person wants longer available in stone he smears the young of a swallow with saffron and the parent bird, thinking That ITS young are affected with jaundice, goes and fetches the stone. Thereupon The Latter is attached to a person affected with jaundice and Proves beneficial to him.
Similar is the habit of the female eagle. If the eggs and the laying of them causes her trouble, and she is suffering so much as to be on the verge of death, the bad, on noticing this, flies away to fetch a stone That is called qalqal Because, When it is shaken , a rattling noise is produced [taqalqala] inside it. If one smashes it into pieces, nothing is found inside, but each piece, When shaken, Produces the same rattling noise as the whole stone. Most people know it by the name of "eagle's stone." The male eagle puts it [under the female], whereby her laying is facilitated. Human beings employ it to ease difficult births, 91 having-learned this device from the eagle.
Another similar instance. In the winter become dim eyesight of snakes hiding from underground. Emerging from Their hiding places Becomes When the warm weather, the snakes seek the fennel plant and rub it against Their Eyes, whereby Their affliction is cured. 92 People who noticed this and tried it out fennel Has Discovered That the property of Eliminating feeble eyesight if the eyes are treated with the sap.
When Hippocrates died he left fourteen descendants and disciples, Both descendants of Asclepius and others. His lineal descendants were four: Thessalus and Draco and their two sons, namely Hippocrates, son of Thessalus, son of Hippocrates, and Hippocrates, son of Draco, son of Hippocrates. Both know His sons-whom they had a son named Hippocrates after the grandfather. His pupils, Both relatives and others, were ten: Laon, Masirgus [?] Miganus, Polybus (a member of His family, who was the most outstanding of His disciples and his successor Melanisson [?], [p.67] Asthath [?], Saury, Gaurus [?], Simplicius, and Thales. This is the report of the Grammarian Yahya.
Another author reports: Hippocrates had twelve pupils, to-whom he never added anyone except after the death [of one of them], nor did he ever veteran Their number. Thus they continued for a time in the land of the Greeks in the colonnade where he used to teach.
Somewhere I have found a report to the effect That Hippocrates had a daughter named M.. . .She had an excellent knowledge of medicine, and it is Said That she even surpassed her two brothers. The physicians of note who lived in the time between Hippocrates and Galen, apart from Hippocrates' own pupils and his sons, were the Following: S. . ., The commentator on Hippocrates' books; Ancilaus the physician, Erasistratus II, the dogmatist; Lyco, Milo II, Gallus, Mircaritus, the author of a book on medicaments, Scalus, a commentator on Hippocrates 'works, Mantias, another commentator on Hippocrates' works, of Tarentum Gallus Magnus of Emesa, the author of a book on urination , who lived 90 years; Andromachus, who lived 90 years: Abras [?] Also known as the "Remote" Sounachos the Athenian, the author of a book on drugs and pharmacology, and Rufus the Great, who was from the city of Ephesus was unrivaled and His Time in the medical art. Galen Mentioned him in some of His books, holding him in high esteem, and copying from him. These are Rufus' books.
1) "On Melancholy," in two chapters; it is one of His best works.
2) The Book of the Forty Chapters.
3) "Nomenclature of the Parts of Man"
4) "On the Disease Which with Hydrophobia appears."
5) "On Jaundice and Afflictions of the Gallbladder."
6) "On the Diseases That Affect the Joints."
7) "On emaciation."
8) "The Regimen of Him Who is not Attended by a Physician," in two chapters. [p.68]
9) "On Angina."
10) "On the Medicine of Hippocrates."
11) "On the Use of Wine."
12) "On the Treatment of Women Who Do not Conceive."
13) "On the Rules for the Preservation of Health."
14) "On Epilepsy."
15) "On Quartan Fever."
16) "On Pleurisy and Pneumonia."
17) "Regimen," in two chapters.
18) "On Sexual Potency," in one chapter.
19) "On Medicine."
20) A treatise on the work done in hospitals.
21) "On Milk."
22) "On the agonies of Death."
23) "On Virgins."
24) "On Figs."
25) "On Foul Breath."
26) "On Vomiting."
27) "On Deadly Drugs."
Ptolemy Relates the Following In His biography of Aristotle. When Aristotle was about to die, he made the Following Will: "I appoint Antipater to be permanent administrator of everything I leave, together with Nicanor. Aristomenes Let, Timarchus, Hipparchus and Dioteles be in charge of everything That has to be done and take Care of Everything That needs attention, namely the affairs of my family, my maidservant Herpyllis and the rest of my manservants and maidservants, and my belongings. If possible, Theophrastus may join them in this task. Reaches When my daughter puberty, let Nicanor take care of her affairs, if she should die before marrying, or thereafter but without issue, let the property revert to Nicanor. Nicomachus As for my son, I want to administer Nicanor His affairs also, as he may think best for him, as if he were the father or brother of both. In homes, However, Nicanor dies before my daughter marries, or thereafter but without her having a son, let him make dispositions Concerning my summer, and it Shall be accepted as valid. If he dies without having made dispositions longer available, I would like to take charge of everything Theophrastus Concerning my children and my summer. If he is unwilling to do so, let him refer the above-named administrators to Antipater, I know That they may consult him on how to deal with my inheritance and then act as they may agree between them. Let the [p.119] the administrators and Nicanor take care of Herpyllis for me, for she deserves it in view of the Efforts expended in my service she and her endeavors to please me. Let them Provide for all her needs, and when to she desires to marry, let them give her only to someone worthy of her. She must be Given, besides her belongings, one talent of silver [125 ratl] and three maids of her choice in location addition to her own maid and servants. If she desires to stay in Chalcis, she may have lodgings in my house-in-the guest House That is by the garden. If, on the other hand, she desires to live in the town of Stageira, she may live in the house of my parents - in any part of it she may choose. Let the administrators Provide everything for her as she Describes needful, taking into consideration of Necessary Whether it is advantageous for her. As for my other servants, there is no need for me to have my wishes in Their Regard - only let Nicanor take care of the servant Marmacus and send him back to town with His All His money in whatever way he chooses; let him free Ambraces my maidservant, on condition That She stay on after her emancipation and serves my daughter until she marries; let her be paid five hundred drachmas and have a maidservant of her own. Let Thale, the maidservant we bought recently, have one of our servants and be paid in thousand drachmas. Let Simon be paid at the price of a servant he may wish to buy in Additions to the servant He Has Already bought with our money, and further Top longer available amount as the administrators may think fit. When my daughter marries, let my servants Tycho, Philo and Olympius be freed. Let not the son of the sons of Olympius or any other of my servants be sold, but let them REMAIN in service until they become men, and then be freed and treated according to Functional Their deserts. "
Hunayn ibn Ishaq says in His book "Anecdotes of Great Philosophers": "The origin of the schools of philosophy was as follows. The Greek kings and others used to teach philosophy and science Their sons and train them in the different branches of cultures. They built houses for them gilded, decorated with all kinds of pictures, Which were put there in order to [p.120] the high spirits and please the eye, and I know the boys Studied In Those decorated buildings and were edified by the pictures. In the same way the Jews engrave Their temples, the Christians paint Their churches and other houses of prayer, and the Muslims embellish Their mosques all this for the uplift of the spirit and the enjoyment of the heart. When a teacher had finished instructing One of Those princes in any science or art, the pupil would climb some stairs to a seat of decorated and engraved marble (this would be on a holiday, When All the people of the kingdom had Gathered at That House after divine services); Those he would then address present on the science he had-learned or mastered the art he had standing in Their midst with a crown on His head and clad in precious vestments. The teacher would be Praised and honored, and the student would be greatly commended, for he had become a sage through His intelligence and learning; temples would be adorned and hung with veils, candles would be lit there and choice perfumes burnt, and the people would Themselves deck out in all kinds of finery. These confirmation ceremonies are still the custom with the Sabians, Zoroastrians, Jews and Christians in Their temples, while the Muslims have pulpits in Their mosques. "
78) "On Medicine" five Treatises.
79) "On Diets," a treatise.
80) "On Agriculture," Ten Treatises.
81) "On Humidities," a treatise.
82) "On the Pulse," a treatise.
83) "On Regular Occurrences," three Treatises.
84) "On Meteorology," Two Treatises.
85) "The Reproduction of Animals," Two Treatises.
86) Another book on the same subject, Two Treatises. [p.134]
87) "On Premises," twenty-three Treatises.
88) "Another Book on Premises," seven Treatises.
89) "Constitutions of 171 Great Cities."
90) "Several Memoranda," sixteen Treatises.
91) Another book on the same subject, a treatise.
92) "On Debate," a treatise.
93) "On Correlation," a treatise.
94) "On Time," a treatise.
95) The works found in Aristotle's closet, several essays.
96) Another book of memoranda.
97) A voluminous book including several epistles, in eight parts.
98) "The Traditions of Cities," Two Treatises.
99) Epistles found by Andronicus, in ten parts.
100) Several books including memoranda Mentioned by number and name in Andronicus' catalog of Aristotle's works.
101) "Problems of Abstruse Homer's Poetry," in ten parts.
102) "On Good Meanings in Medicine."
Ptolemy says: "These are all the books I have seen, but there are Those Who have seen many others."
Ibn Abu `ah Usaybi Continues: Aristotle wrote many books Which I have seen and Ptolemy Which did not. They are:
103) "On Bravery."
104) "Political Management,"
105) "Practical Management."
106) "Problems of Drinking" (wine, intoxication, etc..) Being twenty-two problems.
107) "according to Functional Monotheism the School of Socrates."
108) "Youth and Old Age."
109) "Health and Sickness."
110) "On Enemies."
111) "On Sexual Intercourse." [p.135]
112) Epistles to his son.
113) The Testament to Nicanor.
114) "On Movement."
115) "The Superiority of the Soul."
116) "On the Size Indivisible."
117) "Metamorphoses."
118) "The Golden Epistle."
119) An epistle to Alexander the Great Concerning His government.
120) "On Illusions and Natural Phenomena."
121) "The Defects of the Stars."
122) "On Stars."
123) "On Wakefulness."
124) "Description and Use of Stones."
125) "The Causes of the Creation of Celestial Bodies."
126) An epistle to Alexander on spiritual things and their influence in different countries.
127) An epistle to Alexander, Entitled "Ismatabis."
128) An epistle to Alexander on the nature of the world.
129) "Istimachis" [?] Epistle written When Aristotle intended to go to Asia Minor.
130) "On Measure."
131) "On the Mirror."
132) "On Sovereignty."
133) "On Natural Problems," known also as "Why?" Seventeen Treatises.
134) "Metaphysics," in twelve Treatises.
135) "The Book of Animals," nineteen Treatises.
136) A Description of Dumb Animals, Their Uses and Disadvantages.
137) "Clarification of the Pure Good"
138) "Mulatis" [].
139) "On Hemorrhage."
'Jibra'il sometimes marveled at my elaborate and painstaking probings and Praised me for them before Abu Ishaq, but on other occasions they provoked him into an angry outburst. He asked me: 'What do you mean by mentioning That proportional relationship?' Said I: 'Proportional relationship is a term much bandied about by the Roman philosophers, and as you are the principal disciple Of Those sages, I Meant to please you by speaking to you in Their terminology;as to my mentioning the proportional relationship between Galen's residence and That of the Roman emperor as Compared With That between your house and That of the Emir of the Faithful, what I Meant to say Was that if Galen's residence is about one-half or one- third or one-fourth or one-fifth - or any other proportion - of the Roman emperor's residence, the ratio between them is equal to the one between your residence and That of the Emir of the Faithful or is it smaller? Now, if the residence of the Emir of the Faithful were two parasangs by one and yours ten by ten, while the residence of the Roman emperor Had Been ten to ten parasangs and That of Galen a hundred to a hundred, the proportional relationship between Galen's That and residence of the emperor would not have been equal to the proportional relationship between your residence and That of the Emir of the Faithful. . .- Jibra'il replied: 'Galen's residence is not so. The ratio in this case is much smaller Than That between my residence and That of the Emir of the Faithful. ' I then said: 'Will you excuse my next remark?' - 'I shall grant your right to make it.' - 'You have just informed us That your master was less distinguished than you are.' Therefore he exclaimed angrily: 'You are a "numajad!" I thought this word had a derogatory sense and Became angry too. When he noticed this, he Declared: 'I have said nothing offensive. I wish I were a "numajad" myself. This is a word compounded of two Persian words, meaning sharpness and presence of mind; I know "numajad" means one Whose sharpness is ever present, and it is used in reference to a young man. I wish I were young like you. For you leap [p.155] like a young rooster, Which usually you feels the urge to compete with old roosters and outdo them, Whereas an old rooster can peck a young one so hard That His brain is laid bare and he dies. You frequently opposed me in debate, and pass Judgments wrong. Even if Jibra'il, Bakhtīshū `His Father, and Jūrjīs His grandfather did not lead the lives of caliphs, still, they were like Caliphs, crown-princes, caliphs' brothers uncles and other relatives, notables and commanders. All These live in comfort When the Caliph is well-disposed toward them. By contrast, all the familiars of the Roman emperors live in straitened, penurious circumstances. How, then, can you shown me with Galen, who was not privileged at all, For His father was an agricultural worker, tending gardens and orchards. How can one who lived longer available in the surroundings b Compared with me, whose parents served caliphs and Their favors received, as well as others less exalted than caliphs. The caliphs favored me and raised me from the status of physician to That of intimate friend. I might not Say That brother or other relative, and no commander or governor, of the Emir of the Faithful favors me without being disposed to do so by His love for me; Whether he is but Thus disposed, or grateful for some treatment I Gave him or desirous to Demonstrate His generosity or reward me for a word I said about him to the Caliph Which benefited him, in any case, each of them presents honors me and me with gifts. In short, if my residence is one-tenth the size of the Caliph's residence and Galen's one-hundredth the size of a Roman emperor's, taking all the above into consideration, Galen is much more distinguished than I am. ' Abu Ishaq said: 'I See That your anger at Yusuf was Caused By His suggestion That You blackberries were distinguished than Galen. 'By Allāh, I am not,' exclaimed Jibra'il: 'May God curse him who is not grateful and does not fully Recognize the good rendered to him. By Allāh, I hate to be Compared to Galen in any way and readily place him higher than myself in all things. ' Abu Ishaq was pleased with Those Expressed His word and agreement saying: 'Upon [p.156] my life, this is what is so wonderful about learned and cultured people! 'Jibra'il would have fallen at Abu Ishaq's feet to kiss them, but Abu Ishaq would not let him and embraced him instead. "
6) "To Glaucon - on the Way to Cure the Sick." Glaucon in Greek means blue. Glaucon was a philosopher who, aware of Galen's great achievements in medicine, asked him to write this book for him. Since the treating physician can not succeed in diagnosing an illness before it, Galen, before dealing with therapy, Describes the Symptoms of different diseases. The first chapter mentions the Symptoms of and cures fevers - not of all of them, but only Those Which are very common. This chapter is divided into two parts: the first Describes fevers Which have no special Symptoms, the second Those Which are accompanied by peculiar phenomena. The second chapter Describes the Symptoms and treatment of swellings. This book was written at the same time as "The Clear Explanation." [p.175]
7) "On the Bones," in one chapter, subtitled 'for students,' Because Galen wanted students to study anatomy before all the other branches of medicine: he who does not know it can study methodology. In this book Galen Describes each bone separately first, and then ITS junction with other bones. He wrote it together with other books for students.
8) "On the Muscles," in one chapter, Galen did not destine this book for students, but the Alexandrians included it in a series of textbooks compiled by them by combining the two above-mentioned Treatises That Galen with three others had written for students: "On the Dissection of Nerves," "On the Dissection of Arteries Nonpulsating, and" On the Dissection of Pulsating Arteries. "They That series combined into one book of five chapters, Entitled" Anatomy for Students. "In" On the Muscles "Galen very concisely Describes each of the muscles of each member and Their Indicates number, types, points of origin and functions.
9) "On the Nerves. Also a treatise for students, Indicating how many pairs of nerves drifts from the lower brain, of what type they are, how and where they are divided, and what functions they perform.
10) "On the Arteries," in one chapter. In this book written for students and dedicated to Autisthenes, Galen Describes the pulsating and non-pulsating arteries. The Alexandrians divided it into two chapters, one on the other on the veins and the arteries. Galen's purpose here was to set out how many veins originate in the liver, of what type they are and how and where they subdivide and how many arteries that originate in the heart, Their types and mode of subdivision.
11) "On the Elements According to Hippocrates," in one chapter. This book Explains That all things Which are capable of existence and destruction, viz, animals, plants and minerals, consist of four elements: fire, air, water and earth;These Are Also the very indirect primary constituents of the human body. The secondary, blackberries immediate constituents of the human body and the bodies of the other [p.176] That have blood creatures are the four humors: blood, phlegm and the two biles.
12) "On the Humors," in three chapters. The first two chapters set out the humors in the animal body - how many they are, of what kinds, and the characteristics of each - and the third chapter Describes the humors in drugs - how they are to be distinguished and defined.
13) "On the Natural Powers," in three chapters. This book purports to explain That the body functions by means of three natural powers: regeneration, sleep and nutrition. The faculty of regeneration Consists of two powers, one of Which acts on the blood until it forms the organs Which have parallel parts, while the other determines the shape of Those organs. Galen Describes the position, size and proportions of each compound organ. Nutrition is subdivided into four secondary powers: ingestion, retention, conversion and excretion.
14) "On Diseases and Afflictions," in five chapters composed separately, but combined into one book by the Alexandrians. Galen Entitled the first chapter 'On the Kinds of Disease'; in it he states how there are many types of disease, subdividing each into ITS minutest varieties. The second chapter, 'On the Causes of Diseases' states how there are many causes of each disease, what they are, etc.. The third chapter, 'On the Kinds of Afflictions, Describes how many and what type of causes there are to each affliction.
15) "Diagnostics of Internal Diseases." This book is known also as "The Painful Spots," in six chapters. This book Describes the Symptoms of internal diseases and the diseases themselves. The first chapter and part of the second present the general methods by Which diseases and their locations can be determined. The second chapter Also points out Archigenes' errors in this field. The last part of the second chapter and the remaining four chapters systematically describe all the internal organs and their diseases, beginning with the brain, Indicating the Symptoms and how to diagnose the disease by them. [p.177]
16) "The Greater Book of the Pulse," in sixteen chapters grouped into four parts of four chapters each. The first part is Entitled 'On the Varieties of the Pulse'; en Describes how many and what kinds of primary pulse there are, and how each of them is subdivided. The first chapter of this part Gives a complete description of the varieties and subdivisions of the pulse, by way of an epitane of the other parts. The remaining three chapters are devoted to a demonstration and a discussion of the same and their scope. The second part is Entitled 'On the Determination of the Pulse'; en Describes how each kind of pulse can be determined by feeling the arteries. The third part, 'On the Causes of the Pulse,' Indicates from what each kind of pulse Arises. The fourth part, 'Prolegomena to the Knowledge of the Pulse,' shows how the preceding date in respect of each kind of pulse are obtained.
17) "On Fevers," in two chapters. This book Describes the principal kinds of fever, Their varieties and symptoms. The first chapter presents two types of fever, one of the spirits, the other of the principal organs; the second chapter Describes a third kind of fever, Which afflicts the humors.
18) "On Crisis" in three chapters. This book Indicates how we can diagnose delirium, When It Occurs and why, and to what it may lead.
19) "On the Days of Crisis," three chapters. The first two chapters set out how the degree of resistance changes During illness, on Which days and the Crisis Occurs on Which it can not Occur, Which Are The Days on Which the delirium is on Which it is benign and malignant, etc.. The third chapter states the Reasons Why the days of illness differ as to the degree of resistance.
Ibn Abu `ah Usaybi concludes: Additions in, Galen wrote many books That were not found by the translators Because they Had Been lost in the course of time, Especially Those Mentioned in the second chapter of His catalog, Which he calls" The Pinax. " He who wishes to study Their titles and subjects That must read book.
Famous physicians in the period immediately after Galen were Stephen, Anchileus, Cassius and Marius, all Alexandrians. These four annotated collected, Summarized and abridged Galen's books; Timaeus of Tarsus; Shimri, known as al-hilal [the crescent] Because He kept to His house, absorbed in His studies and literary work, I know That people only saw him from time to time; Magnus the Alexandrian; Aribasius, the author of the Pharmacopoeia and physician of the Emperor Julian, who wrote a book for his son Eustace, in nine chapters, a book on the mixing of foods, in one chapter, and a pharmacopoeia; Paulus of Ignatia, who wrote a pharmacopoeia of theriac, and a book on the management and treatment of children; Stephen of Harran; Aribasius al-Qawābilī [the obstetrician], so named Because He specialized in the treatment of women; Dioscorides the oculist, said to not have been the first specialist in eye diseases; Paphalos of Athens; Aphromites the Alexandrian; Nitos, known as' the Well-Informed One "Because Of His vast experience: Narisius the Roman, who settled in Alexandria and Became one of the Alexandrians; Hieron; and Ziryabel.
Others were living around That Time Philigrius, who wrote books the Following:
1) "For Him Who Can not Reach a Doctor," in one chapter. [p.195]
2) A book on the Symptoms of diseases, in five chapters.
3) A treatise on gouty pains.
4) A treatise on stones.
5) A treatise on yellow water [cholera].
6) A treatise on liver pains.
7) A treatise on colic.
8) A treatise on jaundice.
9) A treatise on the nature of the womb.
10) A treatise on the sciatic nerve.
11) A treatise on the composition of salt theriac.
12) A treatise on the bite of a rabid dog.
13) A treatise on vomiting.
14) A treatise on the pathology of the gums and teeth. [p.196...].
Footnotes
Note to the online edition: the notes marked with * were originally at the foot of each page. The numbered notes were typed up as an appendix. The page numbers Seem to relate to M ü ller's edition.
[Page 1]
1. ^ 1) Literally: the decayed bones.
2. ^ 2) Qoran, XXXI, 20/19 (first and number. Cairo, second ed. Fl ü gel).
3. ^ 3) Qoran, II, 253/254.
4. ^ 4) In the original text, the participles are Referring to "witness" Which it is impossible to imitate in the translation.
5. ^ 5) A phrase from the tradition (hadeeth), cf. Lane.
6. ^ 6), ie, to the whole mankind, meristic phrase.
7. ^ 7) ie, the inimitable Qoran.
8. ^ 8) Literally: cut off and cauterized (medieval terms!)
9. ^ 9) Literally: dirt.
10. ^ 10) The meaning of the Arabic word is merchandise.
11. ^ 11) Browne, p. 12 ff.
[Page 2]
12. ^ 1), ie, on Earth, the author playing on the words for space and time.
[Page 3]
13. ^ 1) Literally: sign-posts, milestones; Sang: monuments. As the book was never written, the author's intention remains incertain as to His pointing to persons or works,
14. ^ 2) ie, When He Became aware of the lack of a book of this kind.
15. ^ 3) Most scholars have wrongly translated this as "Sources of Information".
[Page 4]
16. ^ * [A Samaritan who converted to Islam.]
1) cf. Part II, p. 234 ff., Sang., I, p. 11, No. 1. He was a Samaritan converted to Islam; cf.Steinschneider, Ar. Lit, p.323.
17. ^ 2) Almost the whole of this chapter is taken up by Galen's bio-bibliography.
[Page 5]
18. ^ 1) The western part of North Africa including the Iberian peninsula.
[Page 6]
19. ^ * [The fragments of this spurious work not have been collected and commented upon by F.Rosenthal: "An Ancient Commentary on the Hippocratic Oath." (BHM, xxx, 1956, p. 52-87).]
1) This is the form of the title appearing here, cf. Hunain, No. 87. The fragments of this spurious work not have been collected and commmented upon by F. Rosenthal, An ancient commentary on the Hippocratic Oath (BHM, XXX, 1956, pp.52-87). The various excerpts from the text contained in this book not have been at the Indicated of Their occurring. The present fragment is Rosenthal's B, 1 b, where ITS quotation by Hunain ibn Ishaq (cf. Rosenthal. Oriens, VII, 1954, p. 55 ff.) Is Compared throughout. In some details we have made use of Rosenthal's interpretations.
20. ^ 2) Following The three words obviously not have been erroneously repeated from the next line; Also Rosenthal, p. 55, n. 11 Deletes them here. [Note to the online edition: the manuscript Gives no indication as to where this footnote Should Be inserted. The location in the online text is arbitrary.]
[Page 7]
21. ^ 1) Literally: Analogists, another name for Dogmatists, see Galen, De sectis (I, p. 65).
22. ^ 2) Thessalus of Tralles in Caria (Anatolia), founder of the Methodist school of physicians in Nero's time, cf. below, p. 34.
23. ^ 3) The text Has Philon; Philinus, the name of the founder of the Empiric school, was Suggested by Sanguinetti and accepted by Rosenthal.
24. ^ 4) cf. Maimonides, no. 353.
25. ^ 5) On Hermes as the inventor of crafts and sciences see below, p. 16 f.
26. ^ 6) In other recensions Qūlūs. This word Also Appears in the Fihrist, p. 286 1. 12, where It Seems to be Identified with Qū (los). Therefore Rosenthal cushion adopted the reading So, cf. His remarks, p. 57 n. 18. Appears in Cos But few lines later on.
27. ^ 7) note that the author dérives the healing of physical diseases from curing the body, Contrary to the view generally accepted by the ancients. Perhaps the text is to be emended.
[Page 8]
28. ^ 1), ie the Asclepiadic school of physicians.
29. ^ 2) Satureia thymbra L., cf. Maimonides, no. 319 b.
30. ^ 3) Rosenthal suggests Etruria, cf. His remarks, p.59 n. 24.
[Page 9]
31. ^ 1) The Following quotation was erroneously omitted by Rosenthal. [Note to the online edition: the numeral "1" is written on the manuscript Followed by "?"]
32. ^ 2) cf. Introduction, and below, Vol II, p. 175-181. [Note to the online edition: the point to insert this footnote is not Indicated in the manuscript: this location is arbitrary.]
33. ^ 3) Unknown.
[Page 10]
34. ^ 1) This is the first of a number of remarks by Ibn al-MATRAN interrupting Abu Jabir's argument.
35. ^ * [An allusion to the first Hippocratic Aphorism: Vita brevis, ars longa.]
2) An allusion to the first Hippocratic Aphorism: Vita brevis, ars longa.
[Page 12]
36. ^ 1) The Following are three lines Rosenthal's fragment B 1, p. 54.
37. ^ * [On the use of the two different names (oath and covenant) see Rosenthal, p. 54, and passim. ]
2) On the use of two different names (oath and Covenant) see Rosenthal, p, 54, end of part A, and passim.
38. ^ 3) There is no such passage in the "Republic". For Aesculapius see below, p. 15 ff.
[Page 13]
39. ^ 1) Literally: probe,
[Page 14]
40. ^ 1) The author uses the same phrases as on p. 13, lower half.
[Page 15]
41. ^ 1) Namely, That Man Discovered medicines by experience and methodical thought, not by divine inspiration.
42. ^ 2) The nephew and pupil of the great translator Hunain, see below, p. 202. None of His Own medical works Has Been found so far. The earliest quotation of the story Occurs in al-Tabari, p. 445. The version related by Jabir's poison book was completely distorted by A. Siggel, Das Buch der Giftecdes Gabir Ibn Hayyan, 1958, p. 84; Also Siggel wrongly adds the name of Andromachus Which does not Occur in Jabir's text.
43. ^ 3) Obviously the author Himself, for Ibn al-Matran's report Continues on the Following Page.
44. ^ * [Cf Galen, De purgantium Medicamentorum facultate.]
4) cf. Galen, De purgantium Medicamentorum facilitated (XI, p. 336-338) = Ed J. Ehlert Göttingen, phil. diss., 1959, p. 15-16. V = (I wish to express my thanks to Prof. K. Deichgoabev for kindly providing me with a Xerox copy of the typed text edited by His pupil,) The Arabic translation was made by Isa Ibn Yahya (Hunain, no. 44). In the Greek text, the blindfolding was done by order of the "{blank}"; Perhaps the {blank} (awara is to be {blank} instead of amavtu).
45. ^ 5) Not known from elsewhere.
46. ^ 6) If you `ard, Sirt, a town south-west of lake Van, see EI. v.. If you `ard.
47. ^ 7) or: near the hippodrome (Sang.).
[Page 16]
48. ^ 1) Namely, in the phase of development Indicated above, p. 7 middle.
49. ^ 2) This is the gist of a story related in Jabir's poison book (Siggel, p. 83 f) allegedly quoted from Galen in the name of Andromachus; but in Galen's extant books, Which, by the way, are spurious, no such story Occurs (cf. vol. XIV). Jāpir's account also in. al-Antaki, sv tiryāq.
50. ^ 3) Arab. giyār; the same was rendered cushion adopted by L. Richter-Bernburg, him and arabishe Version der Schrift De pseudogalenischen Reriace to Pisoman (Sökingen, phil. diss., 1969) -3 - 1 of. p. 117, n. 4.
[Page 17]
51. ^ 1) No such book is known. Its name does not Occur in U's list of Galen's books either.
[Page 19]
52. ^ 1) We have been unable to verify this tradition.
53. ^ 2) This passage was edited and translated by D. Already Chwolson, Die Ssabier 1856, vol.11, p. 601. Bidef See also J. - F. Cumont, Les mages hellenises 1938 I, th. III; Les quatre livres II.
54. ^ 3) These two names of the Inhabitants of Babylonia Appear side by side Although there is no substantial difference between them. See A. Baumstark, PW, sv Chaldaioi.
55. ^ 4) Literally: Hermesses of Hermes, to name Often used in this kind of literature.
[Page 20]
56. ^ 1) The tradition on Hermes Occurs in them to more elaborate form later on.
57. ^ 2) On the medieval translations into European languages of this famous book see F. Rosenthal, Oriens, XIII-XIV, 1961, p. 132 ff., With a list of the many quotations in our book, p. 145-147. For the present quotation see A. Badawi's edition, 1958, p. 233, 1. 1-9.
58. ^ 3) See Introduction, and below, p. 321.
59. ^ 4) Yahya ibn Adi, a Christian philosopher and author (died 973 AD), see below, p. 235.
60. ^ 5) The Arabic spelling of the names points to oral tradition, and the genealogy is contaminated from Gen IV, 18 ff. and V, 25 ff. In the former place the sons of Lamech Appear as inventors of various arts.
61. ^ 6) cf. Qoran, XXXVI, 105.
[Page 21]
62. ^ 1) Galen, De ratione being treated for venae sectionem (XI, p. 314).
63. ^ 2) That is our fourth hour after noon
[Page 22]
64. ^ 1) Galen, De methodo medendi. (Vol.X, p. 971). The Arabic translation shows some inaccuracies
65. ^ 2) Rosenthal, p. 60, FRAGM, B 1 c.
66. ^ 3) = kunnash collection points to His Iatrikai synagogai (CMG, VI), but the story was not found there
[Page 23]
67. ^ 1) Text safraghān; Ibn al-Baitar, sv, Identifies the name with trghlwdhys (troglodytes), and under this heading one reads two explanations Transmitted from al-Razi, one of them renders the name "Frankish safraghum" (from al-Hawi, known as "Continens :). Ibn al-Baitar quotes in this connection Dioscorides: ossifragus (ed. Wellmann, II, 53), Which Means fishing-eagle. Dioscorides speaks of Its power of crushing stones. However, Both explanations Appear to be incompatible.
68. ^ 2) Obviously one of the Fatimids before the conquest of Egypt.
69. ^ 3) Unknown.
[Page 24]
70. ^ 1) Qoran, XXIV, 35; Bell's translation.
71. ^ 2) The commentary on De sectis exists in MS Escorial 847.
72. ^ 3) This place (Vol. X, p. 529) Has nothing to do with our subject.
73. ^ 4) Schacht-Meyerhof (see next note): "Here! I forgot the kind of headache you are suffering from Which." Also Sanguinetti reads the verb in the first person.
74. ^ 5) This passage was translated by J. Schacht and M. Meyerhof, the medico-philosophical controversy between Ibn Butlân of Baghdad and Ibn Ridwan of Cairo (Cairo, 1937), p. 49. Some expressions not have been taken from there.
75. ^ 6) Avenzoar, cf. IHS Sarton, II, p. 231 ff., And below, Vol II, p. 66-67.
76. ^ 7) cf. Lane, I, p. 157, sv dam buhrānī.
77. ^ 8) Neither the text nor any Arabic translation was available in Jerusalem.
[Page 25]
78. ^ 1) In fact, it was the elder Andromachus, the physician of the emperor Nero, as stated by Galen, De Antidotis (Vol. XIV). The first of the three stories Following Appears there in a different form and as experienced by Galen Himself. No proper names are Mentioned it it. In Jabir's Book of Poisons (Siggel, p. 85) the story is likewise related to Andromachus.
79. ^ 2) Bwrnws, as given in the text, does not make sense. Perhaps Panarmus (Bnwrmws), a seaport in Crete (Plinius, IV, 12, 20) 9 Andromachus was a Cretan.
80. ^ 3) A large glazed earthen pot.
[Page 26]
81. ^ 1) The variants appearing in the MSS precaution prevent a decision. Müller, in the text, read Apollonius; afterwards, in the app.crit., he favored Procopius.
82. ^ 2) Literally: fainting.
[Page 27]
83. ^ 1) Spelling uncertain. Müller guessed Iulius (Black)
[Page 28]
84. ^ 1) The conclusion does not Seem convincing.
[Page 30]
85. ^ 1) The same story Appears below, p. 256 f. in the biography of Muwaffaq al-Din Abu Tahir, and in al-Tanukhi, Faraj al-ba `d alshidda, Cairo, 1375/1955, p. 321 Already quoted by Browne, p. 77F.
86. ^ 2) The consonants are flwlh. Müller Hesitates to accept Sanguinetti's suggestion, Apollon. EJ and L. Edelstein, Asclepius, 1945 do not share any suitable name. In the parallel version of the story, below, p. 309, the name is spelled 'flwln.
87. ^ 3) See Müller U- ber text and Spredigebraeuh, p. 951, vv Delilah. [Note to the online edition: The footnote is evidently corrupt as given in the manuscript.]
88. ^ 4) The translation follows Kopf's emendation ushqiya; but, When reading ashfā (Müller). Could one think of an abbreviation of the phrase ashfa haffat Ala al-ya's "to be on the brink of despair," cf.Wehr.
89. ^ 5) On this book, not edited so far, see Kraus, Jabir, II, p. 63 n. 5.
[Page 31]
90. ^ 1) This habit of the swallow is Auhad Also related by al-Zaman Abu 1-Barakat Hibat Malka Allāh ibn al-Mu Tabar, II, 1358, p. 282. The author is Expressly quoted below, p. 14.
91. ^ 2) See the Numerous parallels collected by Kraus, Jabir, II, p. 72, and some additions in Picatrix, p.404 n. 4.
92. ^ 3) See Kraus, lc, p. 67 n. 4 and Picatrix, p. 403 n.4. Ps.Galen, De Theriaca to Pisonem, transl. L. Richter-Bernburg, p. 112 That Relates the fennel serves them as food.
[Page 32]
93. ^ 1) This account is a contamination of two places in Ps. Galenic books. The Story Told here literally Appears in Latin translation ap. Chartier, t.XIII, p. 1013; His source is a Hebrew translation made by Ben Kalonymos Kalonymos (Steinschneider, Hebr. Uebers., p. 653) A different Latin translation from the same source exists in the famous Dresden Latin Galen and was edited by Hugo Reich, Die Schriften de usu farmacorum De clisteribus et colic und in der Dresdner lateinischen Galenhandschrift (Leipzig, med. diss., 1921 typescrypt, I wish to thank the Institut für Geschichte der Medizin, Leipzig, for kindly providing me with a xerox copy through the good offices of Dr. G. Strohmaier, Corpus Medicorum Graecorum, Berlin). Another version Expressly taking the ibis as teacher of enemas Appears in the Introduction sive medicus (Kuhn, XIV, p. 675, other parallels ap. W. Artelt, Studien zur Geschichte der Begriffe "Heilmittel" und "Gift", 1937, repr. 1968, p. 7 n. 2). Herodotus Himself Gives a general description of the ibis without mentioning ITS alleged use of enemas (II 76), and in the Following paragraph the use of enemas by the Egyptians, without reference to the foregoing description of the bird. - Our story is Also Told in al-Mu `Tabar Auhad by al-Zaman, II, 282, but instead of" ibis "Merely" a bird "is quoted.
94. ^ 2) Uncertain; Suggested dryops Sanguinetti, a kind of woodpecker.
[Page 33]
95. ^ 1) Siraj, as printed in the text, was Replaced in Müller's preface, p. XXXIX, by Suruj, according to Functional MSS all but one.
96. ^ 2) Probably the well-known stronghold of the Crusaders in Jordan, but there are other places of this name.
[Page 34]
97. ^ 1) In the text Appear Persian equivalents for Both names, cf. Maimonides, no. 242.
98. ^ 2) The story is actually related to Dioscorides, III, 32; Arabic text in Dubler's Also the Persian translation of the name is given.
99. ^ 3) This person Appears in several places as an informant of our author.
100. ^ 4) Sanguinetti quotes Aelianus, De nat. anim., I 37, where the enemy is the bat, and the leaves of the plane-tree. The same protection is used by the vulture For His Already living young, cf. Picatrix, p. 406, and the literature quoted there (n. 1).
101. ^ 5) cf. above, p. 31 nl The story is related on the page quoted there.
102. ^ 6) ibid., p. 283.
[Page 35]
103. ^ 1) ibid. The same is said by Abu Hayyan al-Tauhīdī, cf. the Inglese translation by L. Kopf, Osiris, XII, 1956, p. 416 (Greek and Arabic other parallels in the footnote). [Note to the online edition: the penciled number in the text is marked with a?]
104. ^ 2) ibid.
105. ^ 3) ibid., and Kopf, lc Perhaps better "thyme", cf. Maimonides, no. 319.
106. ^ 4) ibid., p.285. [Note to the online edition: the penciled number in the text is marked with a?]
[Page 36]
107. ^ 1) cf. Alfarabi's Philosophy of Plato and Aristotle, tr. by Muhsin Mahdi, 1962 Part 1: The Attainment of Happiness (Tahsil al-Sa ada), Especially para 15 ff.
108. ^ 2) Uncertain; the syntax of this sentence Seems somewhat disturbed.
109. ^ 3) al-siyar to mukhalifa; Sanguinetti: manieres de les vivres defavourables; Müller, probably rightly: zweckwidrige Staatseinrichtungen, cf. al-Farabi, the statesman Aphorisms, ed. Dunlop 1961, para 93.
[Page 38]
110. ^ 1) cf. below, p. 207.
111. ^ 2) See D. Pingree, The Thousands of Abu Ma'shar, 1968 and our Introduction.
112. ^ 3) The quotation was first translated by J. Lippert, WZKM, IX, 1895, p. 353, who obviously held it ends That here (see next note). His rendering of muluk al-tawa as if "Diadochen" Seems hardly acceptable; Abu Ma'shar may well have heard of the ancient Greek city-kings.
113. ^ 4) Abu Mashar's report was Summarized by Pingree, p.18. Pingree Lyuliyus reads and renders the last sentence as follows: "Julius was the first to united the Greek kings into the kingdom of Ionia" (not "the town of Ionia," and taking minutes as a complement of the verb, not as explanation of man). If he is right, the "dictator Julius" stands for the Roman Empire, and in this case Pingree's mockery (No. 3) at Abu Ma'shar's historical knowledge is even less Justified. - By the way, it is not the last sentence Certain That Belongs to the quotation from Abu Mashar; see Lippert, above, n. 5.
114. ^ 5) See above, p. # 3 of 20
115. ^ 6) This book of His Seems to be lost.
116. ^ 7) If this means transliteration Zeus, It Should not have been said "grandson",
117. ^ 8) Literally, "belly", apparently His descendant in the sixteenth generation.
[Page 39]
118. ^ * [Probably Lycurgus. ]
1) Probably Lycurgus, see below, p. 40 n. 5.
119. ^ 2) For this etymology, see Rosenthal's collection of references in note 36 of His above-mentioned paper.
120. ^ 3) = Askla aigle, cf. U. von Wilamowitz-Mollendorf, Isyllos von Epidauros, 1886, p. 40 ff., And Der kleine Pauly, I, 1964 svAsklepios. Other quotations see Rosenthal, 38 notes, and Ibn Juljul, p. 11.
121. ^ 4) No Syriac book of this kind is known.
122. ^ 5) This sentence Reflects the seemingly widespread stories about discoveries in temples of written revelations.
123. ^ 6) Edelstein, no text. 458.
124. ^ 7) We were unable to trace a statement to That effect either in the book or quoted elsewhere. Nor anything Edelstein Has That Kind of.
[Page 40]
125. ^ 1) Cf Ritter's Einfuhrung to Picatrix.
126. ^ 2) This passage.was Already translated by G. Levi della Vida, The Arabic translation of the stories of Orosius (Fontes Ambrosini, XXVII = Miscellaneous G. Galbiati, III, 1951), p. 189, n. 4 of p. 188. The last sentence was rendered by him, Contrary to the Arabic text: The religion of the Romans before Christianity was to do worship of the stars (kabl understood as adverb, not as preposition). Sanguinetti Suggested qibal "La religion des existait Chretiens in Rome, a cote (ou en face) du culte des astres." Levi della Vida Already As stated, the passage does not exist in Orosius.
127. ^ 3) Literally: angel.
128. ^ 4) read minni, cf. Bergsträßer, Hunain ibn Ishak und seine Schule, 1913, p. 4 n.
129. ^ 5) Protrepticus, IX 22, Edelstein, no text. 245 and vol. II, p. 115 n. 15. The Subsequent verses, Which bear the most striking similarity to the report of our author, are Addressed to Syourgus (also in Herod. I 65)., As Delkin Also Observed. See also Lycurgus' biography in Plutarchus, Ch XXXI, and cf. above, p. 39 n. 1.
130. ^ 6) Edelstein, text nol 121 (from Ps, Eratosthenes). Ibn Juljul, p. 11 wrongly Refers to the story Hippocrates' Oath.
[Page 41]
131. ^ 1) The place in Plato's Leges alluded to does not exist.
132. ^ 2) Plato, Republic, III 407-8 (Edelstein, nos. 124.143).
133. ^ 3) Ed Badawi, p. 2 8 1. 2-3.
134. ^ 4) Mub. and Ibn al-Qifti, p. 21. 3 Tirmis read, but the reading of our text Occurs in the Arabic original of the Tabula Smaragdina, cf. Plessner, der Islam, XVI (1927), p. 100 at the beginning of the variants. The word is obviously a distortion of Trismegistus.
135. ^ 5) cf. Genesis V 3 ff
136. ^ 6) to the p-Mubashshir, 71, 4 from below to the bottom, in a slightly different arrangement.
137. ^ 7) ibid., p. 8 1. 8.
138. ^ 8) Generation V 23.
[Page 42]
139. ^ 1) literally: of perfect arms' length.
140. ^ 2) Mub., p.l01. 3-7.
141. ^ 3) Mub., p. 81. 1-5 Tells the above Within the context of Hermes' biography, not mentioning His Name; the name of Aesculapius was obviously added by arranging His excerpts.
142. ^ 4) Mub. Paenult 44, of Hippocrates, another example of our author's confounding the tradition.
143. ^ 5) Sanguinetti inserts a report by Ibn al-MATRAN Which according to Functional Müller, MS Appears in Paris, Suppl. ar 674 (i) and also in. Nicholson's MS (n) on the margin, Whereas cod. Seasonal rental. Prun, (c) it includes in the text, but some lines later on. As Müller prints only the beginning of this marginal notes, Which in Sanguinetti's translation fills a whole page, we were unable to render it and we must refer the reader to Sang.
144. ^ 6) The text Has Lahjad, Already corrected by EF Seybold, ZDMG, LV (1903), p. 807. The whole matter was discussed anew by D. Pingree, lc, p. 14 ff., Where Also part of our text is Given in translation. Pingree does not refer to A. Christensen's suggestion That the text speaks of a son of Hoshang Whose name was distorted (Les types du premier homme, II, 1934, p. 110).
145. ^ 7) ie, the Sabians of Harran (Carrhae).
146. ^ 8) cf. Also Sven S. Hartmann, Gayomart (1953), p, 107. It is worth mentioning That al-Mutahhar b. Tahir al-Maqdisi, k. the-bad-1 wa-ta rikh (see Hartmann, p. 134) Expressly dates Gayomart after the Flood.
[Page 43]
147. 1) One of the prophets who Preceded Muhammad Mentioned in the Qur'an. [Note to the online edition: there is no indication in the text where this footnote Should be inserted.]
148. ^ 2) literally: night and day; on the order in Semitic languages see A. Fischer, "Tag und Nacht" im Arabischen und die semitische Tagesberechnung (Abhandlungen philol.-histor.Klasse der der der Wissenschaften Sachs.Gesellschaft, vo. XXVII not. 21, 1909).
149. ^ 3) Obviously, Ibn al-Qifti's readings, hayakil for hunaljk (where) and barābī for Turab (mud) are preferable. The sentence would then mean: "and he built the sanctuaries of the pyramids and the temple towns"; but cf. Pingree, p.15.
150. ^ 4) Müller is right in deleting the Following four words as an ancient marginal notes Which was subsequently included in the text. Pingree does not refer to Müller's emendation.
151. ^ 5) XUC Sura 57. - Sanguinetti translates here another addition (6 lines) Which of Müller notes again the first words only.
[Page 44]
152. ^ 1) This reading, One Among many possible ones, was preferred by Müller Because of Its supposed similarity to Nasirbal. Ibn Juljul, p.8, Has Nabriz Bani; Ibn al-Qifti, p. 346 omits the passage. Also cf. Pingree, n. 17 and F. Sayyid's attempt of an explanation in n. 4 on p. 9 of His Ibn Juljul edition.
153. ^ 2) January 8-11 X.
154. ^ * [Literally borders; "Teem" is a Qur'anic term for punishments of prescribed measure. ]
3) literally: borders, in Qur'anic language for a term of punishments prescribed measure. Our translation is only hypothetical, see Wehr's Dictionary, sv hadd.
155. ^ 4) literally: natures.
156. ^ 5) The whole account of the three Hermeses was translated by M. Plessner, Hermes Trismegistus science and Aran (Islamic Studies, II, 1954, p. 51 f.), where Also a historical analysis is attempted. See also EL NE, sv Hirmis.
157. ^ 6) One would expect annahū instead of an; Therefore Kopf translated: He was so successful that.
[Page 45]
158. ^ 1) Cf Edelstein, II, p. 40 ff. Mentioned in the texts and the notes.
159. ^ 2) This expression replaces Zeus, see Edelstein, II, p. 67 ff.: The divine myth.
160. ^ 3) The pagan "gods" is here Replaced by "angels", see above.
161. ^ 4) ie, Johannes Philoponus. About His History and Hunain Ibn Ishaq's dependence upon it see P. Rosenthal, Oriens, VII (1954), p. 55 ff.
162. ^ 5) This sentence also in. Ishaq's History, cf. Rosenthal, lc, p.70 (translated).
163. ^ 6) cf. Edelstein, II, p. 53 ff.; Asclepius, the hero of physicians.
164. ^ 7) cf. Above, p. 44 No. 4, but, on the other hand, Ishaq, lc, p. 70 f.
165. ^ 8) On These two sons, Mavhaon and Podalirius, and their role in the Isiad see Edelstein, II, p. 1 ff.
166. ^ 9) See below, p. 215 ff. The source of the present quotation is unknown.
[Page 46]
167. ^ 1) Here shortcomings must be assumed; Sanguinetti's "art medical reposat sur ce que tout entier jusqu'a Hippocrates" is impossible. He Himself thought it Necessary to reproduce the Arabic text in a note.
168. ^ 2) This etymology was Mentioned above. - The present quotation from Galen's Commentary is Rosenthal's second fragment B, p. 64 f. He translates laghz "allegorical" instead of "mythical" see His elaborate discussion of the matter in note 40. His argument Could not make us to alternate the standard translation, see also Picatrix, p. 292, nn. 3 and 7, with addendum, p. 427
169. ^ 3) Coronis as Phlegyas' daughter Already in Hesiod., fr. 123 (Edelstein, i, text 22, and II, p. 34 ff.). The admittedly questionable redaction of the text, in Which Appears as Aesculapius son of Phlegyas and Coronis, can hardly be saved by Rosenthal's suggestion to read muhadhdhibaihi instead of mahdiyatihi, "the son of Coronis and who Phlegyas Both Took care of him"; His see note 42.
[Page 47]
170. ^ 1) The author ascribes to Homer the etymology itself, but in fact it is found in a scholium in Homerum, cf. Edelstein., Text 270, and Rosenthal, n. 44.
171. ^ 2) The author obviously means phlegma, Which is Also used in medical writing for inflammation, see Liddell-Scott, sv The verb is phlegein, the usual noun phlox.
172. ^ 3) This etymology connects the name with korennymi, as Already Sang, Observed. The Greek texts Themselves refer the name to her beauty (Edelstein, text 32); actually it is spelled Coronis, which seemed to allude to Korone "crown".
173. ^ 4) Obviously Aesculapius.
174. ^ 5) Müller considers the last five words an old gloss; but Rosenthal translates them and places them between "man" and "gets satiated."
[Page 48]
175. ^ 1), see above.
176. ^ 2) The somewhat tortuous styling of the phrase is two to Hunain's intention to allude to the well-known Platonic saying That the aim of philosophy is the assimilation of man to God as he is Able to do as I do.
177. ^ 3) This part of Galen's text and Hunain's commentary was translated into German by G. Strohmaier, Die Gotter griechischen in einer christlich-Arabischen Uebersetzung (F. Altheim-R. Stiehl, Araber in Die Welt der alten, VI [1968 ], p. 157.
[Page 49]
178. ^ 1) Galen's treatise Remenber That the good physician must be a philosopher as well.
179. ^ 2) In fact, many statues of Aesculapius usually you also show great part of undressed body, cf. the examples in K. Kerenyi, Göttliche Der Arzt (1964), Also G. Sarton, A History of Science, [I], (1952), p. 389-391.
180. ^ 3) Arab. shu'ab, but in the description preserved in Ibn Aahshiya's Nabataean Agriculture Aesculapius (he is there named Shifahi, obviously = the Healing!) holds a staff with uqad = knots, cf. Festus, De verborum significatu (Edelstein, text 691): bacillum habet nodosum! Ibn Wahshiya's version is quoted in Picatrix, Arab. p.355, cf. the translation, p. 370 with notes. (The transliteration Shafahi) 1859 Introduced by Chwolson, Should Be altered, cf. above).
181. ^ 4) see below, Hunain's remark.
182. ^ 5) Rosenthal, n. 65 Has Identified excellently this phrase as the Homeric Iliad verses, 244, 343-4 = Od. 5, 47-8 = 24.3 to 4. (The holder of the staff is, of course, Hermes, Zeus not). The Arabic "gladdens" (yuqirru a'yun, literally "cools the eyes") is an attempt to imitate the Greek phrase onmata thelgei "entrances the eyes" (G. Highet's translation).
183. ^ 6) Mark the silent correction of the false expression "tree".
[Page 50]
184. ^ 1) The Greek name is Althaia, Which Dioscorides, III 146 dérives from althainein "to care." It was this etymology That Caused the author of the commentary to describe the staff as made from the marsh-mallow "tree"; the Greek sources extant, naturally, say nothing of it. By the way, in Ibn Juljul's History of physicians, p. 12, the story is related to Hippocrates; immediately after it, Hunain's description of the healing power of the marsh-mallow is Attributed to Galen Himself. Ibn al-Qifti, p. 10 l. 17 ff. reproduces Ibn Juljul's report in full.
185. ^ 2) literally "dragon", and so at all other places in the Following text.
186. ^ 3) Has Already Sanguinetti As stated, this is the opening sentence of the Prognostic. Its Arabic translation by Hunain was published by M. Klamroth, ZDMG, 40 (1886), p. 204 ff. It was Studied anew by Bengt Alexanderson, Die Schrift hippokratische Prognostikon, Ueberlieferung und Text (Gothenburg, 1963), p. 156 ff., And in the apparatus criticus of His edition, p. 193-231. Our Translation keeps as close as possible to the WHS Jones' from the Greek (Loeb Classical Library, 1923), p. 7 As the author of our commentary quotes Hippocrates only as to His words are as relavant in His context, the sentence remains unfinished; It appears in full later on, in our author's account of Hippocrates' Book, below, p. 31.
187. ^ 4) Müller's "Herodotus" is contradicted by many MSS, the reading Which Was Indicated by Sang. is "Ibrodiqtes", ie, in His view, a corruption of Herodicus (not, as Rosenthal, n. 75, erroneously quotes, Herophilus), Hippocrates' teacher. But as we have no indication of him having lived an extra-ordinarily long time, the second meaning of the name remains obscure; Rosenthal's suggestion "Perdiccas" (II, son of Alexander I of Macedonia, 454-4 13 BC)
[Page 51]
188. ^ 1) cf. Rosenthal, n. 76.
189. ^ 2) ibid., n. 81.
190. ^ 3) ibid., n. 83.
[Page 52]
191. ^ 1) cf. al-Beruni, India, transl. Sachau, I, p. 222 (Rosenthal, fr. B 2 c, p. 63 with explanatory note 35).
192. ^ 2) cf. al-Beruni, I, p. Rosenthal's 35 and fr. B 2, p. 60, and note 28.
193. ^ 3) Rosenthal, p. 72, takes the passive participle as: "is dried out."
194. ^ 4) Kopf's excellent correction yarwuna yarauna instead of "they're of the opinion" is evident, Although not in any extant manuscript.
[Page 53]
195. ^ 1) cf. "Cereals", Ceres being the Latin name of Demeter. The author obviously alludes to the familiar etymology in antiquity Demeter = Gemeter - "Mother Earth", see Der kleine Pauly, sv Demeter.
196. ^ 2) Rosenthal, n. 91 points to hygiaineon ariston men in Plato's Gorgias, 451E and elsewhere.
197. ^ 3) Rosenthal, n. 92 Has The evident correction ayyuha instead of annaha. See also His remarks on abrar (here rendered "blessed") with regard to the Greek original, Poetae Lyrici Graeci, III.595-597 (by Ariphron of Sicyum).
198. ^ 4) Since the verb does not Occur without complement, we proposed to add them-khairik.
199. ^ 5) We read, Contrary to Müller's vocalization, but In accordance with Sanguinetti and Rosenthal, the "ie".
200. ^ 6) We prefer, with Sanguinetti and Rosenthal, mulk rather than milk "property" (as Kopf read), cf. Also Rosenthal, n. 95, who quotes almost identical verses by Ariphron and Licymnius (1. Isodaimonos anthropois balileodos arkhas!).
[Page 54]
201. ^ 1) cf. Rosenthal's quotations, p. 74 n. 97.
202. ^ 2) One would expect instead of huwa hiya, cf. Müller, Text, p. 926.
203. ^ 3) 1. yasihh-wa. n. 101, on the wordly, not theological.
204. ^ 4) cf. Rosenthal, signification of this word in our place.
205. ^ 5) Hygieia from hygrotes, cf, Rosenthal's quotations, p. 76 n. 102.
[Page 55]
206. ^ 1) This is the end of Rosenthal's fragment B and 2, Which Began on p. {Blank}
207. ^ 2) Ed Badawi, p. 28 f. Although our text is better in several places, it Has Been Compared obviously not by him.
208. ^ 3) literally: the days.
[Page 56]
209. ^ 1) The readings of Both names are corrupt in our text; Müller's suggestion, Which We cushion adopted, was meanwhile Justified by Ibn Juljul, p. 15, and Ibn al-Qifti, p. 72.
210. ^ 2) The reading "Greece" in Ibn Juljul Seems Likely blackberries; the difference can be Explained by graphical Reasons.
211. ^ 3) The variants in the manuscripts of our text, in Ibn Juljul and Ibn al-Considerable Qiftī are, none of them pointing to one of the names in the legends connected with the invention of the Greek alphabet (see D. Diringer , The Alphabet, 2nd ed. reprinted 1953, p. 450 f.).
[Page 57]
212. ^ 1) Jud.IV-V; the reading Barak is distorted in our text, but confirmed by Ibn Both Juljul and Ibn al-Qifti.
213. ^ 2) This list of six Asclepiads Also Occurs in Abu Sulaiman al-Mantiqi's Siwan alhikma, MS Istanbul, Murad Spring 1408. fol. {Blank}, Qifti, p. 13. The whole passage, as stated in These two sources, stems from John the Grammarian (Yahya al-Nahwī, Johannes Philoponus), cf. F. Rosenthal, Oriens, VII, 1954, p. 56 ff. As the work of John needs a reconstruction on the basis of the excerpts preserved In These sources and the Fihrist, he only used occasionally Those sources, namely, where Their help with the correct names can be Regained.
214. ^ 3) Contain the Following pages a great many Greek physicians. As to as Their identity can not be doubted, the real Greek names not have been inserted even where the Arabic transliteration would suggest a different pronounciation. For less well-known physicians references not have been noted. Where the identity is not fully Certain, question marks not have been added. All other names Appear in literal transcription of the Arabic consonants. (It Should Be That kept in mind at the beginning of a name may be read with any of the vowels, while in the middle or at the end of a word it can denote w and y mean u can or or to au and i respectively .)
215. ^ 4) A physician of this name is quoted by Galen; our text omits the i.
216. ^ 5) This is the reading Given in Müller's text; there are several physicians bearing this name. Should we rather prefer the reading Chryses, who was one of Hippocrates' ancestors.
217. ^ 6) This name Also Occurs in the list of Given alchemists in the Fihrist, p. 353, cf. JWFuck, Ambix, IV, 1951, p. 92, no. 30, with note, p. 120.
218. ^ 7) This criticism is rather amusing, in view of the horrible distortion of chronology commited by John Himself Throughout the whole chapter, cf. Also our author's remarks, below, p. 61, and Rosenthal, p. 77 n. 2.
[Page 58]
219. ^ 1) This name, Which Occurs several times in this context, was, for the sake of convenience, rendered with vowels, Which are, of course, hypothetical.
220. ^ 2) Cf p. 57 n. 2.
221. ^ 3) The Following was translated by Rosenthal, lc, p. 75 from the version preserved in Hunain Ibn Ishaq's History of Physicians.
222. ^ * [No medical namesake of the famous Eleatic philosopher is known.]
4) No medical namesake of the famous Eleatic philosopher is known.
223. ^ 5) A physician of this name Appears in Galen's De Compositione Medicamentorum secundum locos, VII (ed. Kuhn, vol. XIII, p. 60); Concerning him the Arabic tradition is listed in Steinschneider, Virchow's Archiv, CXXIV (1891), p. 477, cf. Also Ibn al-Qifti, p. 55.
224. ^ 6) The same list also in. the Fihrist, p. 287 f., And Siwan al-hikma.
[Page 59]
225. ^ 1) See above, p. 58, n. 5.
226. ^ 2) The grandfather of the great Hippocrates.
[Page 60]
227. ^ 1) There are several physicians of this name.
228. ^ 2) One would expect Mthyn ws, or the "Elder" Mentioned on the foregoing page Should Be spelled Mnyth'ws.
229. ^ 3) This is obviously the correct reading instead of Dhywfyl in Müller's text, see immediately.
230. ^ 4) It is hardly Necessary to point out That this account of the rise of the three main sects in Greek medicine, Empiricists, Dogmatists, Methodists is, from the chronological point of view, as untenable as the whole genealogy of ancient physicians presented here.
[Page 61]
231. ^ 1) If Biblas Apollonius of Antioch (ca. 100 BC) is Meant (cf. K. Deichgraber, Die griechische Empirikerschule 1930, repr., 1965, p. 172), the punctuation Should Be altered into ['] BFLS.
232. ^ 2) This reading, extant only in Müller's app. Crit., Seems preferable to Fylnbs of the text, for Philippus would not have been written without y (Replaced by u). Already on Philinus see above p. 7 with n. 3.
233. ^ 3) Deichgraber, lc, p. 409, quotes from One of Those passages in Galen's commentary on Epidemics VI Hunain's only preserved in Arabic translation (CMG V 10,2,2, p. 212) Certain MNSNSUS, who might be the same person.
234. ^ 4) cf. Celsus, VI 9.
235. ^ 5) See Diller, PW, sv
236. ^ 6) The author's criticism is directed against the existence of the pre-Hippocratic books, but had better Been directed against John's chronological ignorance, Which Caused Müller to doubt the authenticity of John's report, and Meyerhof to ascribe all this to our author Himself (Joannes Grammatikos [Philoponos] Alexandrien von und die Medizin arabishce, Mitteilungen des Deutschen Instituts fur Archaologischen Ägyptische A1tertumskunde in Kairo, II, 1, 1931, pp. 13-15). See above, p. 57 with n. 7. It may be remarked That John's genealogy of physicians Has features in common with the Biblical genealogies from Adam to Noah (Gen V) and from Noah to Abraham (Gen. XI 10-32).
237. ^ 7) From here, John's report Continues, but our author failed to mark it.
[Page 62]
238. ^ 1) See above, p. 25 with n. 1.
239. ^ 2) Probably the father of Hippocrates.
240. ^ 3) Müller Already Suggested Philagrius.
241. ^ 4) cf. Pape-Benseler, Worterbuch der griechischen Eigennamen, 1911 I. p. 470th about this name appearing in Hippocr. Epid., 2,2,14.
242. ^ 5) Diog. Laert. VIII, 1.47 (Loeb); Plinius, XIX, 30, 94 (Loeb) Identifies him with the philosopher.
243. 6) The last two names Already Appeared before in the same list. [Note to the online edition: no insertion point is Indicated for this footnote.]
244. ^ 7) One of Galen's anatomy in authoritier.
245. ^ 8) To be corrected into Heraclides.
246. ^ 9) Rosenthal, p. 77 Suggested Megareus; a physician named Megareus is quoted Hippocr. Epid. 4, 20.
247. ^ 10) Rosenthal's suggestion Euergus, Although supported by Hippocr. Epid. 7.55 (Perhaps a corruptela of Eueygetes, cf. Benseler-Pape, s.vv.) Seems unlikely for graphical Reasons.
[Page 63]
248. ^ 1) The author alludes to John the Grammarian's genealogical statement partly Reproduced in the foregoing chapter.
[Page 64]
249. ^ 1) Some of the Greek sources Cleomyttades read; Müller's suggestion the Dleomontades according to Functional Arabic is unfounded.
250. ^ 2) This passage is, as the figures evidence a literal quotation from the second Pseudo-Hippocratic letter. See also H. Schoebe, Bruchstücke einer neuen Hippokratesvita (Rheinisches Museum, LVIII, 1903, p. 63.)
251. ^ 3) This statement Confirms the second version of the Pseudo-Hippocratic letter, while the common tradition omits Praxithea and makes Phaenarete son of Hippocrates, The letter alone version is Given in PW, sv Hippocrates. If it is right, the physician's mother is a namesake of Socrates' mother!
252. ^ 4) This expression substitutes the wording of the letter "from gods."
253. ^ 5) Here ends the literal quotation from the second Pseudo-Hippocratic letter.
254. 6) Read with Hunain ibn Ishaq, the Siwan al-hikma and Ibn al-Qiftī sittin healthy sanatain instead of "two years" of our text. [Note to the online edition: the insertion point of this footnote is not Indicated in the manuscript.]
255. ^ 7) dérives This passage from John the Grammarian, see above, p. 63 n. 1.
[Page 65]
256. ^ 1) The last two Paragraphs are Rosenthal's fragment B 3 g (see above), p. 80 f.
257. ^ 2) See above, p, 10 (Arabic). The quotation is probably from the work Mentioned there.
258. ^ 3) His source probably read "a daemon."
259. ^ 4) Cf the tradition (hadith): "There are three fathers, he who begot you, he who taught you, and he who educated you, but the best of These is the teacher", quoted in M. Plessner Der OIKONOMIKOS des Neupythagoreers "Bryson" (1928), p. 130.
[Page 66]
260. ^ 1) cf. Suda, sv Democritus, and E.Zeller, Die Philosophie der Griechen, I 26, p. 1050 fn.
261. ^ 2) His son-in-law.
[Page 67]
262. ^ 1) Instead of this Islamic passage, the original reads: "I swear by Apollo the physician, by Aesculapius, Hygieia, Panacea and by all the gods and goddesses"; cf.WHS Jones' translation of Hippocrates (Loeb Classical Library), I p. 299 Which I have used Throughout the text of the Covenant as to as the Arabic literally Agrees with the Greek.
[Page 68]
263. ^ 1) The translation is not Certain, the Greek original kata bion anthropon itself being understood differently: Jones translates "in my intercourse with men," Whereas Walls (see below) says "im Leben der Menschen," and Diller (see below) "im Umgang mit Menschen." Rosenthal (see below) translates from the Arabic "betreffs Tätigkeit von der Leuten." Perhaps Jones and Dillwer are right, but there may be a misunderstanding on the part of the unknown translator into Arabic (see the analysis of language by His Bergsträßer, Hunain, 1913, p. 72 f).
264. ^ 2) render the text of the Covenant, we have also used the German translations from the Greek by W. walls. Der Arzt im Altertum (Bucherer-Tusculum, München, 1962), p. 8-11, and H. Diller, Hippocrates writings Rowohlts Klassiker, Reinbek, 1962), pf, as well as That made from the Arabic by F. Rosenthal, Das Fortleben der Antike im Islam (Bibliothek des Morgenlandes, Zurich und Stuttgart 1965 ), p. 250-252.
265. ^ 3) We again follow Jones' Inglese translation (vol. 2, p. 263-265), Diller's German translation from the Greek (lc, p. 96 f.), and Rosenthal's from the Arabic (lc, p. 252 f.). See, howerver, negative Bergsträßer's Judgment on this anonymous Arabic Parts, lc, p. 79; Nevertheless, we feel no ITS Entitled to correct mistakes in the text itself, see our Following remark.
266. ^ 4) Arabic salb iyaha, Which Also may mean "to denying incoming become it." But we doubt the translator That Should Have chosen the above phrase for rendering the correct sense of apoleipetai.
267. ^ 5) Pheme. literally "by word, by fame." The Arabic translator probably chose ism fi'l name as counterpart of "fact." Greek ergo "work:" both Arabic words Also mean "noun" and "verb."
268. ^ 6) li-yantabi'a, Greek emphysiotheisa. The Arabic root tb 'means "to impress," but is related to the tab' "nature." Jones: "becoming second nature," in the Greek to be sure there is no equivalent to {blank}'s and mind. "{Blank} idomathie.
[Page 69]
269. ^ 1) paidomathie.
270. ^ 2) The further Top elements of the comparison are missing in the Arabic translation, cf. the Greek original.
271. ^ 3) This time, the Greek text Has logos, see above, p. 68, n. 5.
272. ^ 4) This positive statement is missing in the Greek text.
273. ^ 5) The Paragraphs of the Law do not, in all cases terminated as the original does; the final paragraph is missing in Arabic Altogether.
274. ^ 6) This "testament" has much in common with medical and De De decent regulars, Both edited and translated by Jone, Vol 2, p. 310 ff. 262 and ff., the Latter Also with German translation by W. Walls (see p. 68, n. 2), p. 24 ff.The Greek original of it is not extant; for bibliographical details see Steinschneider, Ar. ub., p. 313, on the Arabic translation Bergsträßer, lcp 79. Given An extract is in Persian in the Quabus name, where the title is "Testaments;" see R. Levy's Inglese translation (A Mirror for Princes, 1951, p. 172). A German translation from our text Gave Rosenthal, lc, p. 253 f.
[Page 70]
275. ^ 1) The original of this book is lost; Arabic was an epitome Discovered and, together with other fragments, edited by P. Kraus (Bulletin of the Faculty of Arts of the University of Egypt, Vol V 1, 1937 Sectio Arabic, Cairo, 1939); additional fragments were published by SM Stern (Classical Quarterly, 1956, p. 91 ff.) See R. Walzer, New Light on Galen's moral philosophy and A Diatribe of Galen (both in Greek into Arabic, 1962, pp.142-163 and 164-174). Book 1 of Galen's four books from Wikipedia Kraus' into German edition by Rosenthal, lc, p. 120-133. The present quotation was edited by Kraus, lc, p. 18 f.
To be added: remaining footnotes, once missing page of manuscript obtained.
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