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ACESIA o ACESIAS

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ACESIA o ACESIAS

Acesia o Acesias (greco Ἀκεσίας) (medico greco, IV sec. a.C. - ? -).
Poco si sa del medico Acesia, se non quanto tratto da alcune citazioni di opere greche e trattati più recenti.
Incerta l’origine (alcune fonti minori lo vogliono ateniese), sembra sia vissuto intorno al secolo IV a.C. e che sia stato un medico proverbiale per la sua ignoranza. Questa sua reputazione la deduciamo da quanto afferma Aristofane (Ἀκεσίας ἰάσατο), vale a dire (Acesias è noto a noi) un medico che invece di guarire fa peggiorare in salute le persone che ha in cura (da: I Deipnosophistai di Ateneo di Naucrati – v. testo in appendice). In tema, J. J. Baierus / Johann Jacob Baier (in: Adagiorum medicinalium centuria, quam recensuit variisque animadversionibus illustravit, 1718) sull’ipotesi che l’Acesias di Ateneo avesse scritto un trattato sull'arte culinaria (ὀψαρτυτικά) e coincidesse con l’Acesias pure menzionato in altre fonti.
Altre citazioni le ritroviamo:
*nei Proverbi del filosofo greco Zenobio / Ζηνόβιος (II sec. d.C.) - - (I centuria, 52) (v. in appendice Fonti da “Corpus Paraemiographorum Graecorum / Leutsch-Schneidewin – T. I, Gottinga, 1839);
*nel grammatico greco Diogeniano / Διογενειανός (II sec. d.C.) (ibidem – in appendice, Prov. II.3);
*nello scrittore greco Plutarco / Πλούταρχος (I – II sec. d.C.) (ibidem- in appendice.§98);
*nello scrittore greco Michele Apostolio / Μιχαὴλ Ἀποστόλιος o Μιχαὴλ Ἀποστόλης (XV sec.) (v. in Prov. / Michaelis Apostolii Paroemiae – Lugdun Batavorum... Ed. Daniel Heinsius. Leiden, 1619. – c.ii – 23).
Ed ancora:
*in William Smith (“A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology”, 1, Boston, p. 7) (v. pure in appendice);
*nella Suda (“Ἀκεσίας”).

FONTI

Ateneo di Naucrati

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Leggiamo testualmente in Ateneo di Naucrati [I Deinosofisti -  o Sofisti (dotti) a banchetto -miscellanea Deipnosophistai, 12.12]:

12. Πρῶτοι δὲ Λυδοὶ καὶ τὴν καρύκην ἐξεῦρον, περὶ ἧς τῆς σκευασίας οἱ τὰ ᾽Οψαρτυτικὰ συνθέντες εἰρήκασιν, Γλαῦκός τε ὁ Λοκρὸς καὶ Μίθαικος καὶ Διονύσιος ῾Ηρακλεῖδαί τε δύο γένος Συρακόσιοι καὶ Ἄγις καὶ ᾽Επαίνετος καὶ Διονύσιος ἔτι τε ῾Ηγησιππος καὶ ᾽Ερασίστρατος καὶ Εὐθύδημος καὶ Κρίτων, πρὸς τούτοις δὲ Στέφανος, ᾽Αρχύτας, ᾽Ακέστιος, ᾽Ακεσίας, Διοκλῇς, Φιλιστίων. Τοσούτους γὰρ οἷδα γράψαντας Ὀψαρτυτικά. Καὶ κάνδαυλον (516f) δέ τινα ἔλεγον οἱ Λυδοί, οὐχ ἕνα ἀλλὰ τρεῖς· οὕτως ἐξήσκηντο πρὸς τὰς ἡδυπαθείας. Γίνεσθαι δ᾽ αὐτόν φησιν ὁ Ταραντῖνος ῾Ηγήσιππος ἐξ ἑφθοῦ κρέως καὶ κνηστοῦ ἄρτου καὶ Φρυγίου τυροῦ ἀνήθου τε καὶ ζωμοῦ πίονος. Μνημονεύει δ' αὐτοῦ ῎Αλεξις ἐν Παννυχίδι ἢ ᾽Ερίθοις· μάγειρος δ' ἐστὶν ὁ προσδιαλεγόμενος·
Ὅτι δέ σοι παρὰ τοῦτο κάνδαυλόν τινα
παραθήσομεν, Β. Κάνδαυλον; Οὐκ ἐδήδοκα
κάνδαυλον οὐδ' ἀκήκο' οὐδεπώποτε.
Α. Θαυμαστὸν ἐμὸν εὕρημα· πάνυ πολὺν δ' ἐγὼ
(516e) ἐὰν παραθῶ σοι, προσκατέδει τοὺς δακτύλους
αὐτῷ γε χαίρων χόρια μὲν ποιῄσομεν -
Β. Ἄνθρωπε, ποίεί λευκὰ καὶ βλέπ' εἰς...
Α. Εἷτ' ἀντακαῖον ἰχθύων τάριχος ἢ
κρεῶν, βατανίων εὐθέως...
δίπυρον παραθήσω κᾠὸν ἐπιτετμημένον,
πυόν, μέλιτος ὀξύβαφον ἐπὶ ταγηνιῶν,
τυροῦ τροφάλια χλωρὰ Κυθνίου παρατεμών,
βοτρύδιόν τι, χόριον, ἐν ποτηρίῳ 
γλυκύν τὸ τοιοῦτον, γὰρ ἀεί πως μέρος
(516f) ἐπιπαίζεται, κεφαλὴ δὲ δείπνου γίνεται,
Β. Ἄνθρωπ' ἐπίπαιζε· μόνον ἀπαλλάγηθί μου,
τοὺς σοὺς δὲ κανδαύλους λέγων καὶ χόρια καὶ 
βατάνια. Πᾶσαν ἀφανιεῖς τὴν ἡδονήν.
Μνημονεύει τοῦ κανδαύλου καὶ Φιλήμων ἐν Παρεισιόντι οὕτως·
Τοὺς ἐν τῇ πόλει
μάρτυρας ἔχω γὰρ ὄτι μόνος φύσκην ποιῶ,
κάνδαυλον, ᾠόθριον ἐν στενῷ. Τί γὰρ
τούτων διάπτωμ' ἐγένετ' ἢ ἁμάρτημα τί;
(517) Καὶ Νικόστρατος ἐν Μαγείρῳ·
Ὃς μέλανα ποιεῖν ζωμὸν οὐκ ἠπίστατο,
θρῖον δὲ καὶ κάνδαυλον.
Καὶ Μένανδρος Τροφωνίῳ·
᾽Ιωνικὸς πλούταξ, ὑποστάσεις ποιῶν
κάνδαυλον, ὑποβινητιῶντα βρώματα.
Καὶ εἰς τοὺς πολέμους δὲ ἐξιόντες οἱ Λυδοὶ παρατάττονται μετὰ συρίγγων καὶ αὐλῶν, ὥς φησιν ῾Ηρόδοτος. Καὶ Λακεδαιμόνιοι δὲ μετ' αὐλῶν ἐξορμῶσιν ἐπὶ τοὺς πολέμους, καθάπερ Κρῆτες μετὰ λύρας.

di cui si riportano qui di seguito le traduzioni inglese e francese:

12. And the Lydians were also the first people to introduce the use of the sauce called caruca; concerning the preparation of which all those who have written cookery books have spoken a good deal-namely, Glaucus the Locrian, and Mithæcus, and Dionysius, and the two Heraclidæ (who were by birth Syracusans), and Agis, and Epænetus, and Dionysius, and also Hegesippus, and Erasistratus, and Euthydemus, and Criton; and besides these, Stephanus, and Archytas, and Acestius, and Acesias, and Diocles, and Philistion; for I know that all these men have written cookery books. And the Lydians, too, used to speak of a dish which they called candaulus; and there was not one kind of candaulus only, but three, so wholly devoted were they to luxury. And Hegesippus the Tarentine says, that the candaulus is made of boiled meat, and grated bread, and Phrygian cheese, and aniseed, and thick broth: and it is mentioned by Alexis, in his Woman Working all Night, or The Spinners; and it is a cook who is represented as speaking:—
A. And, besides this, we now will serve you up
A dish whose name's candaulus.
B. I've ne'er tasted
Candaulus, nor have I e'er heard of it.
A. 'Tis a most grand invention, and 'tis mine;
And if I put a dish of it before you,
Such will be your delight that you'll devour
Your very fingers ere you lose a bit of it.
We here will get some balls of snow-white wool.
You will serve up an egg well shred, and twice
Boil'd till it's hard; a sausage, too, of honey;
Some pickle from the frying-pan, some slices
Of new-made Cynthian cheese; and then
A bunch of grapes, steep'd in a cup of wine:
But this part of the dish is always laugh'd at,
And yet it is the mainstay of the meal.
B. Laugh on, my friend; but now be off, I beg,
With all your talk about candauli, and
Your sausages, and dishes, and such luxuries.
Philemon also mentions the candaulus in his Passer-by, where he says—
For I have all these witnesses in the city,
That I'm the only one can dress a sausage,
A candaulus, eggs, a thrium, all in no time:
Was there any error or mistake in this?
And Nicostratus, in his Cook, says—
A man who could not even dress black broth,
But only thria and candauli.
And Menander, in his Trophonius, says—
Here comes a very rich Ionian,
And so I make a good thick soup, and eke
A rich candaulus, amatory food.
And the Lydians, when going out to war, array themselves to the tune of flutes and pipes, as Herodotus says; and the Lacedæmonians also attack their enemies keeping time to their flutes, as the Cretans keep time to the lyre.).

 

12. Les Lydiens furent également les inventeurs d'une sauce spéciale composée de sang et d'épices qu'on appelle karykê, mixture que divers auteurs de traités d'art culinaire ont  mentionné, tels Glaucos de Locres, Mithécos, Dionysios, mais aussi deux Syracusains appelés les Héraclides, Agis, Épénétos, Dionysios, Hégésippos, Érasistratos, Euthydémos, et Criton; citons encore Stéphanos, Archytas, Acestios, Acésias, Dioclès et Philistion. Je crois avoir fait la liste de tous les auteurs d'Art culinaire. Les Lydiens ont également confectionné un plat que, dans leur langue, on nomme « kandaulos », dont il existe trois variantes, ce qui est normal de la part d'un peuple tellement obsédé par le luxe. Hégésippos de Tarente assure qu'il est composé de viande bouillie, de miettes de pain, de fromage de Phrygie, d'anis, et de bouillon gras.  Alexis en parle dans son Vigile, à moins que ce ne soit dans ses Tisserands  ; un cuisinier est l'interlocuteur du dialogue : 
« LE CUISINIER : En outre, nous te servirons un kandaulos. 
B. Un kandaulos ? J'ai jamais mangé ça ! Je connais même pas !
A. C'est une de mes spécialités les plus prisées ; si je t'en donne, tu iras jusqu'à te bouffer les doigts, tellement tu apprécieras. Allons ! préparons un bon boudin !
B. Mon cher, ces boudins, est-ce que tu les fait blancs, regarde à... (lacune) 
A. Ensuite, pour poissons, nous choisirons un esturgeon salé, pour rôtis, quelques... (lacune) directement des chaudrons.... Je mettrai devant toi un pain cuit deux fois et un œuf dur sur le pain, du petit lait, une fiole de miel pour tartiner les crêpes, du fromage frais de Cythnios soigneusement tranché, une grappe de raisins, une panse farcie, et une bolée de vin liquoreux : c'est cela d'ordinaire que l'on sert comme second plat, mais, là, ça constituera le plat principal. 
B. Moques-toi ! Veux-tu bien me foutre la paix quand tu me parles de tes kandaulos, de tes panses farcies et de tes chaudrons, ça me fout la nausée ! »  
Philémon fait également allusion au kandaulos dans le Voisin en ces termes :
« Tout le monde est témoin dans le patelin que je suis le seul à faire un bon boudin, un kandaulos, ou une omelette dans une pièce. Est-ce là un crime assurément ? »
Même chose pour Nicostratos dans le Cuisinier :
« Il ne savait pas faire le bouillon noir, mais il était expert en omelette ou en kandaulos. »
Ménandre dans son Trophonios  :
« Et l'Ionien, gâté de richesse, se fait préparer comme plat principal du kandaulos et diverses nourritures aphrodisiaques. »
Enfin, quand les Lydiens s'en vont en guerre, ils aiment à défiler en s'accompagnant de flûtes de Pan et de pipeaux, comme Hérodote nous le rappelle :
«Les Lacédémoniens se jettent sur l'ennemi au son des flûtes, comme les Crétois le font au son de la lyre.»

 

*Zenobio

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*Diogeniano

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*Plutarco

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*Michele Apostolio

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William Smith

-    (XII. Pag. 516c.) -
 “(*)Akesi/as), an ancient Greek physician, whose age and country are both unknown. It is ascertained however that he lived at least four hundred years before Christ, as the proverb Ἀκεσίας ἰάσατο, Accsias cured him, is quoted on the authority of Aristophanes. This saying (by which only Acesias is known to us,) was used when any person's disease became worse instead of better under medical treatment, and is mentioned by Suidas (s. v. Ἀκεσίας), Zenobius (Proverb. Cent. 1.52), Diogenianus (Proverb. 2.3), Michael Apostolius (Proverb. 2.23), and Plutarch (Proverb. quibus Alexandr. usi sunt, § 98). See also Proverb. e Cod. Bodl. § 82, in Gaisford's Paroemiographi Graeci, 8vo. Oxon. 1836. It is possible that an author bearing this name, and mentioned by Athenaeus (xii. p. 516c.) as having written a treatise on the Art of Cooking (ὀψαρτυτικά), may be one and the same person, but of this we have no certain information. (J. J. Baier, Adag. Medic. Cent. 4to. Lips. 1718.)